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Psalms 78:2 Matthew 13:34-35
Psalms 78:24 John 6:31
Introduction to the instruction78:1-8. Asaph appealed to his audience to listen to his instruction about GOD’S acts, power and wonders. He had received these teachings from former generations and was now passing them on to the next generation, as GOD had commanded (Deut.6:6-7). The reason of this teaching was that the young would NOT forget the LORD but trust Him and obey His Word (78:7-8). This would help them to escape the mistakes of their ancestors who were stubborn, rebellious and unfaithful to JEHOVAH (Ex. 6:3; Ps. 83:18; Isa. 12:2; 26:4). Fathers need to communicate GOD’S Truth down through the generations.
Psalm 78 is a doctrinal and instructive Psalm, as the word Maschil indicates. The word Maschil means instructing, and occurs in the title of thirteen Psalms (32, 42, 44, 45, 52, 53, 54, 55, 74, 78, 88, 89, 142)). It means a song enforcing a lesson of devotion or wisdom. Psalm 78 was delivered to Asaph to be sung. The Targum is, the understanding of the HOLY SPIRIT by the hands of Asaph. Some think David wrote it; but in the latter part, mention is made of him, and of his government of the people of Israel, and it seems as if it was written by another, not long after David’s death, since the story is not carried any further than his times; and therefore it may have been written by Asaph, the chief singer, that lived at that time.
Whoever the penman was, it is certain he was a prophet, as was Asaph, who is called a seer (2 Chron.29:30), which is the same as a prophet, and who is said to prophesy and also that he represented CHRIST; for that the MESSIAH is the Person that is introduced speaking in this Psalm is clear (Mat.13:34-35), and the whole Psalm may be considered as a discourse of His to the Jews of His time; giving them a history of the Israelites from their first coming out of Egypt to the times of David, and in it an account of the various benefits bestowed upon them, and of their great ingratitude and their divine resentment . . . the intention of which is to admonish and caution the Jews against committing like sins, so as not to be rejected by GOD as their fathers were, and perished.
We do not know for certain who wrote Psalm 78. Some think it may have been Isaiah after the fall of Ephraim, 720 years before JESUS was born. Ephraim was the name of the largest group of families in Israel. About Ephraim: https://www.gotquestions.org/tribe-of-Ephraim.html
The entire Psalm is a story (history) of GOD’S people until the time of King David. It tells us that GOD was good to His people, but they were NOT good to Him. They did NOT obey Him. WHY is it that people do NOT obey GOD, when He is SO good to them? Psalm 78 may have some answers to this question. After the first 8 verses, the remaining verses 9-72 are in different parts, each part telling a little more of the story.
In today’s world, people are still NOT obeying GOD . . . not the Jews, nor the Gentiles! Maybe IF we seriously consider this Psalm, we might change our attitude on a lot of things.
Attention Called For (78:1-8)
These are called dark sayings, because should be carefully looked into by us. The law of GOD was given with a specific reason, to teach it diligently to their children (Deut.6:6-7), that the Jews (and the church) may abide for ever. Also, that the wisdom of GOD, both in mercy and in judgment, might encourage them to conform to the will of GOD. The works of GOD can greatly strengthen our resolution to keep His commandments. Hypocrisy (double standards, deception) will quickly take you to the road to apostasy. IF our hearts are not set right with the LORD, we will not stay dedicated, faithful and steadfast with GOD. We as children of GOD, must submit to all things lawful, must not fulfill sinful desires, nor copy sinful examples of those around us that we know is disobedience to the Laws of GOD! What is the Will of GOD?
Psalm 78:1 Give ear, O my people, to my law: incline your ears to the words of my mouth. (KJV)
Give ear, O my people . . . the Jews were CHRIST'S people, He descended from their fathers according to the flesh (Mat.1:1-17); they were His own people, to whom He came, even though He was rejected by them (Jn.1:10-11). They were His nation and His people, but they delivered Him up into the hands of the Romans (Jn.19:6), condemning Him to be crucified. This is an address of the King or ruler of the people, calling their attention to His right to rule over them, and showing why that power had been assigned in Him.
To my law . . . not the moral nor ceremonial law, but the doctrine of the Gospel of CHRIST, or law of faith, called the MESSIAH'S law (Isa.2:3). This is the doctrine which JESUS as Man received from His FATHER, and which He taught and delivered to His disciples . . . it is the doctrine of Himself, His Person, His office and His grace, and is sometimes called the doctrine of Christ (2 Jn.1:9).
Incline your ears to the words of my mouth . . . listen to what I am saying! Pay attention! What is to be said is worthy of your particular concern (Ps.5:1). CHRIST demands it of men; all that have ears to hear should hear; all the TRUE sheep of CHRIST hear His Voice, understand it, and act according to it (Jn.10:27-30). There is great danger that shall come to those who refuse to hear and neglect and despise His Holy Word (Heb.2:1-3; 4:1, 11).
Psalm 78:2 I will open my mouth in a parable: I will utter dark sayings of old: (KJV)
I will open my mouth . . . (Ps.49:4), speak freely and boldly (Eph.6:19), as CHRIST opened His Mouth (Mat.5:2).
In a parable . . . the word parable here means a statement by comparison; meaning He would bring out what He had to say by a way of reasoning founded on a likeness drawn from the ancient history of the people. Much of what was delivered by our LORD in the days He was on Earth, was said in many parables; as of the sower, and of tares, and of the grain of mustard seed, and many others (Mat.13), and without a parable He spake not (Mat.13:34-35; Mk.3:33-34), and so fulfilled what He here said He would do.
I will utter dark sayings of old . . . sayings of ancient times, which had come down from past times, and which illustrated the results of ancient times. I will open my mouth to explain what has been hidden long ago, and explain mysteries from the past, I will tell things that have been secret since long ago.
Psalm 78:3 Which we have heard and known, and our fathers have told us. (KJV)
Which we have heard and known . . . the change from I to we have made some think that the disciples of CHRIST are now speaking; but I disagree, because our LORD uses the same form of speech (Jn.3:11). Which we have heard and known, that which have been told to us as truth.
And our fathers have told us . . . this may not only respect the Jewish ancestors, from whom our LORD descended according to the flesh (Rom.1:3; 9:3), and so refer to the following account of the wonderful things done for the people of Israel; but also the divine FATHER of CHRIST, from whom, as His only begotten Son (Jn.3:15) that lay in his bosom (Jn.1:18) and as Mediator (Gal.3:19-20; 1 Tim.2:5; Heb.8:6; 9:15; 12:24). CHRIST had heard and became acquainted with the secrets and mysteries of grace, and with His FATHER'S mind and will (Jn.1:1-3) . . . all which He had declared and made known to His apostles.
Psalm 78:4 We will not hide them from their children, shewing to the generation to come the praises of the LORD, and his strength, and his wonderful works that he hath done. (KJV)
We will not hide them from their children . . . the children of the Jewish fathers, faithfully publish and declare to fear the LORD thy God, to keep all his statutes and his commandments
(Deut.6:1-2), as CHRIST and His apostles did . . . they being the children of GOD by faith in CHRIST JESUS (Gal.3:26). We today must be faithful in handing down these Truths to future generations . . . for we stand between past generations and the generations to come and are entrusted by those who have gone before us with the great and important Truths; Truths to be preserved and transmitted in their purity to future generations.
Shewing to the generation to come . . . and so in all successive ages, by the ministration of the Holy Word, and the SPIRIT attending it (Ps.22:30). We must show the reasons why CHRIST should be praised, as resulting from His past doings . . . His paying our penalty for sin so we could have eternal life in Heaven (Jn.3:15-18, 36). We must transmit to future times, the pure Truth of religion, and turn away from damnable heresies (2 Pet.2:1).
The praises of the LORD . . . what He has done in redemption and effectual calling, which is to the praise of the glory of His grace (Eph.1:6-7), and all the other Truths of the Gospel, which are to the praise of FATHER, SON and SPIRIT, and for people to take part and broadcast it. Do NOT ever be ashamed of JESUS . . . because you do NOT want Him one day to be ashamed of you (Mk.8:38; Lk.9:26). BEWARE!!!
And his strength displayed . . . CHRIST, the Man at GOD’S right Hand, strong in Himself, and in the redemption wrought out by Him, as well as in the conversion of sinners by His mighty grace, and in the preserving of them by His power: Right Hand of God: (Mat.26:64; Mk.16:19; Lk.22:69; Acts 2:33; 5:31; 7:55-56; Rom.8:34; Col.3:1; Heb.10:12; 12:2; 1 Pet.3:22).
And his wonderful works that he hath done . . . in wisdom and grace; the miracles done by CHRIST, which were the wonderful works done by Him as proofs of His deity and His MESSIAHSHIP, and are stated in the Gospel to confirm it; and specifically the wonders of His redeeming love and amazing grace, which are uniquely ascribed to Him as the works His Hands have wrought, and the wonderful decrees of GOD that He made in eternity concerning these things (Jn.1:1-3). The Bible is full of the records of His power, and the wonderful works that He has done on behalf of His people (Gal.3:26-29).
Psalm 78:5 For he established a testimony in Jacob, and appointed a law in Israel, which he commanded our fathers, that they should make them known to their children: (KJV)
For he established a testimony in Jacob . . . the law is called a testimony of the divine will (Ex.25:16), and writings of the Old Testament which testify of CHRIST, His Person, His office, His sufferings and His death (Isa.8:20), and especially the Gospel, which is the testimony of GOD, of our Lord JESUS CHRIST, and of His apostles (2 Tim.1:8) which bear witness to the love and grace of GOD in the salvation of men by CHRIST; to the dignity of CHRIST'S Person, to the fullness of His grace in each of the offices and relations in which He stands to His people; to the virtue of His obedience, His sufferings and His death.
And appointed a law in Israel . . . the Law given on Mount Sinai was given to the Jews, and so was the word and oracles committed to them; and not only the writings of Moses, but also the prophets, are called the Law (Mat.22:40) . . . but the Gospel seems to be meant here (Ps.78:1), which was ordained before the world (Jn.17:5; 1 Cor.2:7; 2 Tim.1:9; Tit.1:2; 1 Pet.1:20), for our glory, and is put and placed in the hands and hearts of the faithful ministers and is published among and received by the true Israel of GOD (Gal.3:26-29).
Which he commanded our fathers that they should make them known to their children . . . meaning the testimony and the law, and the things contained in them. The Jewish fathers were quite often commanded to teach their children the law of Moses (Deut.4:9; 6:7; 11:19-23) and it was their duty to instruct them in the knowledge of the Scriptures (2 Tim.3:15), and Christian parents should bring up their children in the nurture and admonition of the LORD, by making known to them the principles of the Christian religion, and the truths of the Gospel (Eph.6:4).
Psalm 78:6 That the generation to come might know them, even the children which should be born; who should arise and declare them to their children: (KJV)
That the generation to come might know them . . . so that people in future times might enjoy the benefit of GOD’S Laws and great works He has done. They were to pass on what their fathers had told them, so they could send these Truths forward to those in the next generations might know them. Dear one, the Truths of the Gospel are unknown to natural men (children of the devil, 1 Jn.3:10)). The Gospel is hidden wisdom, the wisdom of God in a mystery; the Bible is a sealed book, the doctrines of it are riddles and dark sayings. The Holy Word of GOD is the only right way to knowledge, which becomes effective when attended with the SPIRIT of CHRIST (Rom.8:9) and power of GOD (Jn.15:4-5; 2 Cor.3:3-5; Phil.4:13).
Even the children which should be born, who should arise and declare them to their children . . . it the will of GOD, that in addition to private instructions, there should be a standing ministry kept up in all ages, to the end of the world. There shall always be some that shall receive the Gospel, and profess the Name of JESUS, just as there has always been and always will be a series of regenerate persons. There shall always be a seed (generation) to serve the LORD (Ps.22:30), for the seed and the seed's seed of the church, from whose mouth the Word of GOD shall never depart, for they shall declare it one to another, by which means it shall be continued to the latest future generations (Ps.71:16-19).
Psalm 78:7 That they might set their hope in GOD, and not forget the works of GOD, but keep his commandments: (KJV)
That they might set their hope in GOD . . . not in the creature, nor in any creature enjoyment (Job 31:24-28). The LORD is the only true Object of hope and confidence. CHRIST, Who is actually GOD (Jn.10:30), is the only real hope of His people (Gal.3:26-29), and only in Him should they place their hope . . . for only in JESUS, GOD’S only begotten SON, is the mercy of GOD the FATHER to be found (Jn.3:15-18, 36; 14:6; Acts 4:12; 1 Jn.5:10-13).
And not forget the works of GOD . . . the works of GOD are those which the Gospel declares, not only the miracles of CHRIST recorded by the apostles, but the works of grace, redemption, and salvation . . . the remembrance of which is kept up by the ministry of the Word and the administration of ordinances (Ex.18:20; Lev.18:4).
But keep his commandments . . . the commandments of CHRIST (Mat.22:36-40; Mk.12:28-31), which are characteristic to the Gospel dispensation; and are to be kept in faith, from a standard of love, through the grace and strength of Christ, and to the glory of GOD by Him (Jn.14:15).
The purpose of keeping His commandments was that they (and we) might see the wisdom, justice, open-mindedness and goodness in His administration, that they would be led to keep laws to promote the welfare of mankind.
Psalm 78:8 And might not be as their fathers, a stubborn and rebellious generation; a generation that set not their heart aright, and whose spirit was not stedfast with GOD. (KJV)
And might not be as their fathers . . . this first and foremost respects the Jews in CHRIST'S time, although it also is a warning to them in following ages, and especially in the latter day, when they shall be instructed, called and converted . . . and also to us, to whom the Gospel is preached, that we are not to be disobedient, as the Jewish fathers were, and to be careful that we do not fall under the same pattern of unbelief (1 Cor.10:5-10).
A stubborn and rebellions generation . . . as the generation in the wilderness was (Deut.9:6-8) and so were their posterity in CHRIST JESUS’ time (Mat.12:34).
A generation that set not their heart aright . . . they did not even try to keep their heart aright, nor did they cherish right feelings toward GOD . . . but they foolishly yielded to any sudden impulse of passion, even when it led them to rebel against GOD. Dear one, this is just as true of sinners today as it was of them back then. The majority of people (Mat.7:13) do not even try to get their hearts right with GOD; for IF they did, there would be absolutely NO trouble at all in doing it.
And whose spirit was not stedfast with GOD . . . they did not maintain a firm trust in GOD. They yielded eagerly to every impulse and every passion, even when it drew them completely away from Him. They had no desire to bind themselves to the only GOD that could give them strength to resist temptation, and they so easily fell into the sin of idolatry. Dear one, this is what is going on in today’s world! BEWARE!!! Judgment Day is coming!
The History of Israel (78:9-39)
Sin takes away the hopes men, creating a hard heart. When people forget GOD’S works of the past, or do not even want to consider it, is quickly causes disobedience to His Laws. This story relates a struggle between GOD’S goodness and man's wickedness. The LORD hears all our murmurings and our distrust and doubts . . . and He is not pleased. Those that refuse to believe the power of GOD’S mercy, shall surely feel the fire of His wrath. Those who say that they trust in GOD’S salvation but who cannot trust His wisdom in the way to it are hypocrites! To all that by faith and prayer, ask, seek and knock (Mat.7:7; Lk.11:9) . . . the doors of Heaven shall be opened . . . but any distrust of GOD greatly aggravates our sins in His Eyes. He expressed His resentment of Israel’s provocation; NOT in denying what they sinfully lusted after . . . but in granting it to them. Lust is content with nothing. Those that indulge their lust, will never be separated from it.
There are hearts that are hard indeed, that will neither be melted by the mercies of the LORD, nor broken by His judgments. Those that continue to sin, must expect to have continued trouble. I think one of the main reasons why we live with so little comfort and peace, is because we do not live by faith. Under the rebukes Israel received, they professed to repent, but they were not sincere. If we really look at Israel's history, we see a picture of our own hearts and lives. GOD’S patience, warnings and mercies, simply seemed to encourage them to harden their hearts against Him and His Word. The history of kingdoms is much the same. GOD’S judgments and mercies have been little attended to, until the measure of their sins has been full (Rom.2:5; 2 Tim.3:13).
Churches today are not teaching the commandments of GOD, not teaching the topic of sin and its consequences and not teaching that GOD is not only a GOD of love (1 Jn.4:8), but also a GOD of wrath. Even TRUE believers remember, that for many a year they abused the kindness of Almighty GOD. When they one day shall come to Heaven (Jn.5:24), they will have a high regard for the LORD'S patience and mercy in bringing them into His Kingdom! Dear one, GOD is a GOD of wrath: (Deut.9:7; Ezr.10;14; Job 20:23; Eze.22:31; Jn.3:36; Rom.1:18; 2:5; Eph.5:6; Col.3:6; Rev.14:10; 15:1,7; 16:1,19; 19:15). BEWARE!!! Be wise, obey Him!
Psalm 78:9 The children of Ephraim, being armed, and carrying bows, turned back in the day of battle. (KJV)
The children of Ephraim being armed, and carrying bows . . . casting arrows out of the bow; they went well armed to meet the enemy . . . they trusted in their armor, NOT in the LORD. The children of Ephraim are the descendants of Ephraim; the tribe of Ephraim. Ephraim was one of the largest of the tribes of Israel, and was the main tribe in the rebellion, and so, the term is often used to mean the ten tribes, or the Kingdom of Israel, in contrast from that of Judah (Isa.7:2,5,7-9,17; Isa.11:13; 28:1). Ephraim is clearly used here, not as meaning that one tribe only, but that tribe as the head of the revolted Kingdom (78:67-68).
But turned back in the day of battle . . . fled from the enemy, they did not stand by their brethren, or help them defend their country. There is probably no reference here to any specific battle, but the idea is, that in the wars of the nation, in those wars which were waged for national purposes, they refused to join with the tribes of Judah and Benjamin in defense of the lawful government.
Psalm 78:10 They kept not the covenant of GOD, and refused to walk in his law; (KJV)
They kept not the covenant of GOD . . . either the covenant of circumcision, which was neglected during their travels through the wilderness (Josh.5:5) or the covenant made with the people of Israel at Mount Sinai (Ex.24:7). This is to be understood not of the children of Ephraim only, but of the Israelites in general, who in many occasions broke the covenant, and were not steadfast in it (78:37), also see (Jer.31:32). They did NOT maintain their allegiance to GOD (Deut.4:13, 23; 17:2).
And refused to walk in his law . . . the Law of GOD, which was given by Him, by the disposition of angels (Acts 7:53), through the hands of Moses (Ex.19:18-25), to the people of Israel. It was to be used as a rule of their walk and lifestyle, but they were not willing to submit to it, but despised and cast it away. They refused to obey His law. They rebelled against Him.
Psalm 78:11 And forgat his works, and his wonders that he had shewed them. (KJV)
And forgat his works, and his wonders . . . totally forgot all His wonderful works, the miracles He performed in their favor, and for their deliverance. These were not only forgotten in the next generation (Judg.15:10), but in a few days, when they had been but three days' journey in the wilderness, after their passage through the Red Sea (Ex.14:31; 17:1-4; Ps.106:13-15). How quickly they forgot!
And his wonders that he had shewed them . . . the wonderful works in Egypt, and at the Red Sea, and in the wilderness; the miracles which He had performed on behalf of His beloved nation.
Psalm 78:12 Marvellous things did he in the sight of their fathers, in the land of Egypt, in the field of Zoan. (KJV)
Marvellous things did he in the sight of their fathers . . . He did marvelous things, that should have excited wonder and astonishment, and they should have remembered. The LORD showed them what He could do, and what He would do for their children.
In the land of Egypt . . . the Israelites were in bondage while they were there, and on their account were these things done. GOD delivered them from Pharaoh.
In the field of Zoan . . . meaning the territory of Zoan, which was an ancient city of Egypt (Num.13:22), the capital of the land where Pharaoh kept his court; where we read of the princes of Zoan (Isa.19:11-13), it is the same as Tanis and was an ancient city of Lower Egypt. The Hebrews seem to have been located in this region, and it was in this part of Egypt that the wonders of GOD were mainly manifested in behalf of His people.
Psalm 78:13 He divided the sea, and caused them to pass through; and he made the waters to stand as an heap. (KJV)
He divided the sea . . . the Red Sea (Ex.14:21-22). The Targum adds, by the rod of Moses their master; which he was ordered to lift up, and to stretch out his hand over the sea; and when he did, a strong east wind was raised, which caused the sea to go back, and divided the waters of it (Ex.14:16).
And caused them to pass through . . . the Israelites passed through the sea; this they did in faith (Heb.11:29), in the faith of the power and Promise of GOD, and of future grace and blessings, which this was a symbol, for it represented baptism, and is so called (1 Cor.10:1-2), and of CHRIST'S precious Blood (1 Pet.1:18-19), or of His sufferings and death; where all enemies are overcome and destroyed, as sin and Satan, indicated by the Egyptians, and salvation is wrought, and every blessing of grace obtained; and of the Passage of GOD'S people through the sea of this world and its afflictions, safely to glory.
And he made the waters to stand as an heap . . . the waters were like a wall on the right hand and on the left hand so they stayed that way until the Israelites had passed through (Ex.14:22); then the waters returned and covered the Egyptians, and drowned them all (Ex.14:28).
Psalm 78:14 In the daytime also he led them with a cloud, and all the night with a light of fire. (KJV)
In the daytime also he led them with a cloud . . . this cloud was in the form of a pillar, and was the visible symbol of His Presence (Shekinah), and its movements determined the way in which they were to go. It was GOD Who led them, and GOD Who decided this way of doing it, so that they always had Him with them, day and night.
And all the night with a light of fire . . . which also was in the form of a pillar, and went before them, and gave light in the night, and the LORD was in it . . . which is typical of CHRIST, Who is the Light of His people amidst all their darkness in this world (Jn.1:4-5; 3:19-21; 8:12). The cloud would not be visible by night, nor would the fire be a good guide by day; and hence, the form of the symbol was changed, but the same thing was intended by both, and together they were proofs of the Presence of GOD. There were things with the Jews which could not be credited to natural causes, and so confirmed that GOD was with them, and that as long as they followed the cloud and the pillar of fire (Ex.13:21-22). They really had NO excuse to rebel against Him. See: What is the Shekinah Glory? In Special Comments of Psalm 68.
Psalm 78:15 He clave the rocks in the wilderness, and gave them drink as out of the great depths. (KJV)
He clave the rocks in the wilderness . . . there were two times on which a rock was smitten (hit, struck) for water; one was at Mount Horeb (Ex.17:6), shortly after they came out of Egypt; and the other was when they had nearly ended their wanderings in the wilderness (Num.20:11).
Both these times were typical of CHRIST (1 Cor.10:4), who is often compared to a Rock for duration, height, strength, shade, shelter and protection; and is called the Rock of Israel (2 Sam. 22:2,32; Deut.32:4,30-31; Ps.42:9). He is a Rock of offence (Rom.9:33; 1 Pet.2:8) to both houses of Israel, the Rock of salvation (Ps.89:26; 95:1), the Rock of refuge (Ps.62:7; 94:22) the Rock of strength (Ps.18:2; Isa.17:10) the Rock that is higher than I (Ps.61:2), and on which Rock the church is built, for CHRIST is our spiritual Rock (1 Cor.10:4). Moses with his rod could never have done it, without the power of GOD that went with it. This striking and cleaving the rocks were a symbol of the sufferings of CHRIST, who was smitten of GOD with the rod of justice, according to the Law of Moses, in a judicial way, for the sins of His people, to obtain salvation for them.
And gave them drink as out of the great depths . . . such a large quantity of water flowed out of the rocks when smitten, as if it came out of the great sea, which gave them with sufficient drink, more than enough for them and their cattle . . . which is typical of the large abundance of GOD’S grace, and the blessings of it, which flow freely and plentifully from CHRIST and His fullness, and through His sufferings and His death.
Psalm 78:16 He brought streams also out of the rock, and caused waters to run down like rivers. (KJV)
He brought streams also out of the rock . . . rock is expressed in the single number, as also in 78:20, because the children of Israel had not come to Kadesh. The second rock was not smitten until they lusted after flesh, and murmured against GOD, and tempted Him.
And caused waters to run down like rivers . . . waters flowed from the rock, which ROCK followed them all the way in the wilderness (1 Cor.10:4); which was a wonderful thing, that water would flow from a solid rock upon striking it, and that it should flow in such great abundance, and that from a rock in a wilderness.
Psalm 78:17 And they sinned yet more against him by provoking the most High in the wilderness. (KJV)
And they sinned yet more against him . . . they kept adding more and more sin against Him, which was a great lack of appreciation for what He had done for them. The idea is that His mercies and the proofs of His awesome Presence made the occasion of their sin greater on their part because they showed more and more wickedness, when He bestowed more and more wonderful mercies on them . . . not uncommon with people.
By provoking the most High in the wilderness . . . literally, they rebelled against Him. They refused to submit to Him. They totally forgot His abundant mercies (Deut.9:22-24). They sinned against the MOST HIGH, which revealed their irreverence, folly and vanity . . . and they did not sin ‘a little’ against Him, they did things which highly provoked Him in an infuriating way . . . this they did in the wilderness where they received so many favors from Him, and where they would have starved and perished without immediate provision, support, and protection, from the Hand of the LORD.
Psalm 78:18 And they tempted GOD in their heart by asking meat for their lust. (KJV)
And they tempted God in their heart . . . the heart, which is desperately wicked (Jer.17:9) and from where all wickedness starts and flows. They had hard thoughts of GOD; they fretted inwardly at their present conditions, and secretly fretted and murmured against the GOD Who had done such wonderful things for them. They wished for things they did not have, they were NOT content with what they had, and thankful for them, as they ought to have been (Ex.16:2-3). Dear one, we should be content with what He has given us. Phil. 4:11 Not that I speak in respect of want: for I have learned, in whatsoever state I am, therewith to be content. (KJV) 1 Tim. 6:8 And having food and raiment let us be therewith content. (KJV) Heb. 13:5 Let your conversation be without covetousness; and be content with such things as ye have: for he hath said, I will never leave thee, nor forsake thee. (KJV) . . . BEWARE!!! Do not be like the Israelites.
By asking meat for their lust . . . or for such as their appetites craved; for they were not satisfied with the bread (manna) they had, which was fully sufficient for their sustenance and support. They wanted food for pleasure and self-indulgence. To ask for daily bread is right, but to ask for more to consume because of our lusts is wrong (Jam.4:3). The word meat here does not necessarily mean animal flesh, as it does with us. They asked for another kind of food than manna; NOT because this was necessary to sustain life, but to satisfy their lusts.
Psalm 78:19 Yea, they spake against GOD; they said, Can GOD furnish a table in the wilderness? (KJV)
Yea, they spoke against GOD . . . they not only thought poorly of Him, and tempted Him in their hearts, but they stated with their mouths what was in their hearts. They spoke against Him, His power and His wisdom, even though He had been so good and gracious to them, and had done such wonderful things for them. They really were calling in question His power and His ability to provide for them in the wilderness (Num.11:4-6).
Can GOD furnish a table in the wilderness? . . . they spoke words against GOD, and by which they tempted Him, questioning His power and His goodness, and expressing their displeasure with their present daily food. They were not content with the manna they had each day, they wanted a table spread with all kind of goodies. The sense of the question is, can the LORD give us a plentiful table in the wilderness, as well as drop the manna around our tents? IF He can, why doesn’t He do it? Dear one, some people are NEVER satisfied! Think about it!
Psalm 78:20 Behold, he smote the rock, that the waters gushed out, and the streams overflowed; can he give bread also? can he provide flesh for his people? (KJV)
Behold, he smote the rock, that the waters gushed out, and the streams overflowed . . . the smiting of the rock the first time took place before the complaining about the food. The fact that the rock had been smitten could not be doubted. They had abundant evidence that GOD was able to do that, and to provide water for them in the desert, so it was not reasonable to doubt whether He could provide food for them . . . for this was no more difficult than to furnish water.
But can he give bread also? . . . solid, substantial bread, not like this light bread, the manna as they called it (Num.21:5). Can He give us bread of corn, in a wilderness which is not a place where corn grows? They did nothing but murmur and complain against GOD.
See #9 in: http://www.hisservants.org/israel%27s_ten_failures_h_s.htm
Can he provide flesh for his people? . . . for such a great multitude, and in a place where no cattle are? If He can do this, we will believe His power. It seems that they thought that this required greater power than the providing of water, or even of bread, and that if GOD could furnish the first two, it would not be proof that he could provide the flesh. It was this, as the next verse shows, which was the immediate occurrence of the special wrath of the LORD.
Psalm 78:21 Therefore the LORD heard this, and was wroth: so a fire was kindled against Jacob, and anger also came up against Israel; (KJV)
Therefore the Lord heard this . . . what they said in their hearts, and clearly stated with their mouths, all their murmurings against Him, their distrust of His power and His wisdom, and not believing His Promises (Num.11:1,10), and GOD was wroth; greater than wroth; He was highly displeased and upset. There was an overflow of His outrage, as this seems to indicate.
So a fire was kindled against Jacob . . . the descendants of Jacob, in the camp of Israel; which was literally true . . . because of the murmurings of the people against the LORD fire came down from Heaven, and burnt among them, and consumed the uttermost parts of the camp; wherefore the name of the place was called Taberah, which signifies a burning (Num.11:1), or it may be taken symbolically for the wrath of GOD, which is often compared to fire (Ps.2:12; 76:7; 90:11; Jer.10:10; Nah.1:6; Mal.3:2; Rev.6:17) . . . hence it follows,
And anger also came up against Israel . . . the people of Israel, the same as Jacob before; the reference is to men when angry, fire burns in their breasts, and from there it rises up, showing itself in their face, in their eyes and by the words of their mouth.
Psalm 78:22 Because they believed not in GOD, and trusted not in his salvation: (KJV)
Because they believed not in GOD . . . that did not believe that He was able to give them bread, and provide flesh for them, or bring them through the wilderness to Canaan's land, as He had promised. GOD, and He alone, is the Object of faith, and He should be believed in at all times, and for all things, both temporal and spiritual. Nothing is more offensive and unpleasant to Him than unbelief. http://hisservants.org/worst_sin_h_s.htm
Dear one, our faith in Him gives honor, glory and praise to Him, while unbelief brings dishonor to Him. Our faith sets its seal to Him as true, but unbelief makes Him a liar (1 Jn.5:10). What is more provoking to us than to have someone call us a liar? Faith has salvation connected to it, while unbelief is connected to damnation (Jn.3:15-18,36). So great an evil is unbelief, and is the sin which easily beset the Israelites (Heb.3:12-13).
And trusted not in his salvation . . . which He promised them, and bid them stand still and see (Ex.14:13), and of which they had proofs and examples in His leading them through the Red Sea, and thus far guiding them through the wilderness, and providing for them; and therefore they had good reason and encouragement to trust in the LORD, that He would be with them, save them and complete the mercy He promised them. BUT, they did NOT trust in His power and His Promise to save. They had abundant evidence of that power, but they still doubted His ability to save them, apart from all that He had done for them.
Psalm 78:23 Though he had commanded the clouds from above, and opened the doors of heaven, (KJV)
Though he had commanded the clouds from above . . . clouds (Isa.6:6), which were all around Him, His chariots, and the dust of His Feet; and which were at His command to go where ever He decided, and carry and let down provisions for His people, as they did. Psalm 68:17 The chariots of God are twenty thousand, even thousands of angels: the Lord is among them, as in Sinai, in the holy place. (KJV) . . . The chariots of GOD are clouds but also are angels! http://www.godcannotlie.org/messianic_psalms_ch.68.html
And opened the doors of heaven . . . as a large granary, from where the manna came from, afterwards called the corn of heaven (78:24), was given out in great abundance, which is indicated by opening the doors (Mal.3:10). The idea is, that GOD had rained down manna upon them in such abundance that it might be compared with the waters that had been sent down at the deluge (Gen.7:11).
Psalm 78:24 And had rained down manna upon them to eat, and had given them of the corn of heaven. (KJV)
And had rained down manna upon them to eat . . . manna was food prepared by GOD for the Israelites. It was their provision, their appointed portion which was distributed daily to them in measure (Ex.16:4-5,14; Num.11:7-9; Jn.6:31).
And had given them of the corn of heaven . . . bread corn springs out of the earth, but this was corn from Heaven, very unusual and wonderful, which greatly aggravated the unbelief of the Israelites, and shows their great ingratitude, that after all this they should doubt the LORD, and not trust in His salvation. The manna was a type of Christ (Jn.6:32-33), Who is called spiritual meat (1 Cor.10:3-4).
Psalm 78:25 Man did eat angels' food: he sent them meat to the full. (KJV)
Man did eat angels' food . . . food that came from Heaven; food so directly and clearly from Heaven that it might be thought to be the same kind that was eaten there. Angels' food; manna, so called, because it was made by the ministry of angels or because such food that might be fitting the angels, its pure and spiritual substance, its efficacy preserving and nourishing those who used it according GOD'S appointment.
He sent them meat to the full . . . which may be understood either of the manna, of which they had great plenty, so that there was no lack for any man, and this continued with them until they came to the land of Canaan; or of the quails, of which is in the following verses. Food to satisfy; or, they had as much as they wanted.
Psalm 78:26 He caused an east wind to blow in the heaven: and by his power he brought in the south wind. (KJV)
He caused an east wind to blow in the heavens . . . (Num.11:31) He caused it to go out of its place, out of the sources, from where He brings the wind, the winds are under the power and government of GOD, they are His servants that obey Him. GOD says to one, Go, and it goes; and to another, Come, and it comes; winds fulfil His word and obeys its Creator. The wind that came is not mentioned, except as it might be indicated by the statement that the quails were brought from the sea, clearly, the Red Sea.
And by his power he brought in the south wind . . . into the air, and with it He brought the quails; which made His power to appear much greater, since quail do not fly with the south wind, for it is too saturated and heavy for them. It seems as if first one wind blew, and then another was used for the bringing of them from the place where they were; possibly around the Red Sea, where they quails are said to have been in great numbers (Num.11:32); and that the east wind brought them to a certain point, and then the south wind blew to bring them into the camp of Israel, where, by the moistness of it, they fell.
Psalm 78:27 He rained flesh also upon them as dust, and feathered fowls like as the sand of the sea: (KJV)
He rained flesh also upon them as dust . . . flesh here means fowl, as the following clause shows; for there is flesh of birds, as well as flesh of other creatures (1 Cor.15:39), and the quails which are meant here can very rightly be called flesh, since they are for their size, a very plump, fat and fleshy bird (Num.11:31-32). The word rained means that the quail seemed to come upon them like an abundant shower. The word dust means their great abundance. What is remarkable is that these quails should be rained and fall, and be taken by the Israelites; and which fell in great numbers, as is signified by these phrases, the dust and the sand of the sea; for there fell enough quails to feed six hundred thousand men, beside women and children, for a month; they lay in heaps, two cubits high, on one another, and everyone that gathered them brought in ten homers (Num.11:18-21).
And feathered fowls like as the sand of the sea . . . like as the sand of the sea is an expression to mean great numbers (Gen.22:17; 32:12; 41:49, Josh.11:4; Judg.7:12; 1 Sam.13:5; Rev.20:8).
Psalm 78:28 And he let it fall in the midst of their camp, round about their habitations. (KJV)
And he let it fall in the midst of their camp . . . or their camps, for many there were (Num.2), or probably the camp of GOD, where He dwelt, and before which He went as the General, Leader and Commander of them (Num.11:31). The flesh or feathered fowl fell, so that they had no trouble to bring it in. Dear one, the quail fell by the order and direction of the LORD Himself; He caused them to fall, without whose knowledge and will a sparrow does not fall to the ground (Mat.10:29).
Round about their habitations . . . for the space of a day's journey on every side, where they lay in heaps, here and there, two cubits high (Num.11:31), so that they could gather them with great ease. There was no need of arrows to shoot them, nor nets to spread for them; they were ready at hand, and in great plenty. I simply cannot imagine how many quails that fell! A cubit is about 18 inches, so that would be 36 inches deep, and even if this were a Sabbath Day’s journey on every side of the camp . . . I simply cannot imagine this . . . no way! The power and wisdom of GOD is absolutely awesome!
Psalm 78:29 So they did eat, and were well filled: for he gave them their own desire; (KJV)
So they did eat, and were well filled . . . were well filled - The word well here is intensive, it means that they were abundantly satisfied; there was no lack; they had the most ample supply. The LORD said that they would not eat just for one or two day, nor ten or twenty days, but a whole month (Num.1118-21). He was very angry at their bellyaching! Some versions say; they eat to excess, not merely to satisfy nature, but to gratify their physical appetite. Gluttony is a sin; it hurts the body by filling it with gross absurdities, and bringing diseases to it; it is harmful to the heart and mind; it is sin leading to ungodliness and not believing in a future state, which often go along with it, and ends in destruction, which is the case of those whose god is their belly (Phil.3:19).
For he gave them their own desire . . . He fulfilled what they lusted after, and they had as much of it as they would. Dear one, the quails were given in judgment. It is a sad thing indeed when GOD gives people a fullness of this world's things for which they lust, and lets them abuse them, or gives them up to their own hearts' lusts. GOD gave the Israelites exactly what they asked for. He gave them flesh to eat as they had demanded; and he gave it to them in such quantities that no one could say that he had not enough. BEWARE!!! There is indeed a very important lesson here for each of us! Do not let the devil lead you onto his broad road!
Psalm 78:30 They were not estranged from their lust. But while their meat was yet in their mouths, (KJV)
They were not estranged from their lust . . . they were NOT separated from their lust . . . lust here means desire, wish. The reference is to their desire for food different from manna, for flesh, meat. The idea is, that they did NOT even try to restrain their strong desire, even when the manna should have fully satisfied them. They indulged to excess, and the result was that many of them died.
But while their meat was yet in their mouths; . . . even before the meat of the quails, was swallowed, as they were gorging themselves with it, destruction came upon them, just as with Belshazzar, while he was feasting with his nobles, in the midst of his mirth and jollity, was slain by the Persians (Dan.5). Numbers 11:33-34 And while the flesh was yet between their teeth, ere it was chewed, the wrath of the LORD was kindled against the people, and the LORD smote the people with a very great plague. 34 And he called the name of that place Kibrothhattaavah: because there they buried the people that lusted. (KJV)
Psalm 78:31 The wrath of GOD came upon them, and slew the fattest of them, and smote down the chosen men of Israel. (KJV)
The wrath of GOD came upon them . . . Numbers 11:33, above, says a very great plague. We do not know what it was for certain, but it was terrible!
And slew the fattest of them . . . maybe those who were most guilty of the sin of gluttony, or maybe this means the chief ones among their princes and nobles, though not only them, but them as well as the common people. The Targum is, and slew their mighty ones.
Psalm 78:32 For all this they sinned still, and believed not for his wondrous works. (KJV)
For all this they sinned still . . . those that survived, were still NOT brought to repentance by GOD’S mercies, nor by His judgments. The goodness of GOD should, but not always does, lead people to repentance. Nothing short of the grace of GOD will make people repent of their sin, or keep them from it.
Aaron and Miriam spoke against Moses, the faithful servant of the LORD, which brought upon the Miriam the plague of leprosy (Num.12); the spies which were sent to search the land, and brought an evil report of it, which set the people a murmuring, and put them on thoughts of returning to Egypt (Num.13); those that were concerned in the business of Korah, Dathan, and Abiram, who were swallowed up in the earth, or burnt with fire from heaven (Num.16); the whole congregation which murmured at Kadesh (Num.20), whom Moses called rebels (Num.20:10) and who afterwards expressed their loathing of the manna, for which fiery serpents were sent among them (Num.21:6; Deut.8:15; 1 Cor.10:9), but their dominant sin was unbelief. http://hisservants.org/worst_sin_h_s.htm
And believed not for his wondrous works . . . it seems that they believed when the miracles were done by the LORD, but it was no time at all . . . they forgot! HOW could they forget going through the Red Sea on DRY ground (Ex.14:31; 17:1-4; Ps.106:13-15).
Psalm 78:33 Therefore their days did he consume in vanity, and their years in trouble. (KJV)
Therefore their days did he consume in vanity . . . He allowed them to spend their days . . . the days of that entire generation, in vain and fruitless wanderings in the desert. Instead of leading them at once to the Promised Land, He kept them there to wear out their life in dreary monotony, wandering from place to place . . . until all the generation that had come out of Egypt had died (Num.14:29-35). http://www.hisservants.org/israel_promised_land_h_s.htm
And their years in trouble . . . in dismay and dread because of their enemies, who smote and discomfited them (Num.14:45), through the Earth's opening and swallowing up many of them (Num.16:30-31); through fire coming from heaven on some of them (Num.11:1), and fiery serpents being sent among them (Num.21:6). Something to consider, is that wicked people, although not all, have nothing but trouble here on Earth, by what their sins bring upon them, and for certain, the lake of fire, Hell at last (Rev.20:15) . . . unless they repent! Dear one, SIN is rebellion against GOD and leads to a course of life, and a death, of which these gloomy, sad, and cheerless wanderers in the barren wilderness were an outstanding symbol.
Psalm 78:34 When he slew them, then they sought him: and they returned and enquired early after GOD. (KJV)
When he slew them . . . the spies for the most part; or when he threatened to slay them, or was about to do it.
Then they sought him . . . then they became seemingly penitent; then they showed a desire to know GOD, and said they wanted to serve Him . . . but sadly it was temporary and hollow, it was NOT a deep and real restoration. This happens often, in times of affliction, in sickness, in bereavement, in the loss of property . . . people then become serious, and express a purpose to repent and turn to GOD. A really deep impression seems to be produced on their minds, but sadly, it lasts only a short time.
And they returned . . . from their evil ways, and by repentance, at least in show and appearance. And inquired early after GOD . . . inquired early refers to the first rays of the morning, the dawn. It comes to mean the beginning of anything; or the first thing. It may refer to the act of seeking GOD as the first thing; in youth; in the morning; at the beginning of any task (Pro.1:28; 8:17; Isa.26:16; Hos.5:15). Here it means that, in their affliction, they did not wait to seek GOD, but expressed an early intention of serving Him. They displayed a speedy drive to break off their sins, and to return to Him . . . but NOT in earnest, NOT with their whole hearts and spirits. The Targum is, they prayed before God; which is often done, by carnal professors, in trouble . . . in other words, they were hypocrites! (Mat.23).
Psalm 78:35 And they remembered that GOD was their rock, and the high GOD their redeemer. (KJV)
And they remembered that GOD was their Rock . . . the GOD Who had delivered them out of the hands of their enemies, had strengthened them against them, had supported and protected them, as well as supplied them with all good things, of whom they had been greatly unmindful. Remembered that GOD was their Rock (Deut.32:4,15,31; Ps18:2; 28:1; 62:2,7; 1 Cor.10:4). They were brought to reflect that their only security and defense was GOD. They were made to feel that they could not rely on themselves, or on any human power, and that their only trust was in GOD.
And the high God their Redeemer . . . the One and Only GOD Who had redeemed them out of Egypt, out of the house of bondage, with a high hand and a mighty arm, and thereby showed himself to be the Most High GOD . . . the GOD who is exalted over all; the true and living GOD. The truth was brought to their memory that it was HE who had delivered them from bondage in Egypt, and HE Who had brought them into freedom. Redeemer (Isa.41:14. 44:6,24; 47:4; 48:17; 49:7.26; 59:20; Ps.19:14; 25:22; Job 19:25).
Some say that half of the book of Psalms ends here.
Psalm 78:36 Nevertheless they did flatter him with their mouth, and they lied unto him with their tongues. (KJV)
Nevertheless, they did flatter him with their mouth . . . in prayer to Him, they only drew nigh to Him with their mouths, only honored Him with their lips; they seemed to show much love to Him and His ways; but their hearts were NOT with Him, but only after their lusts! They made adequate speeches and fair promises, but their hearts and mouths did NOT agree. Dear one, NO one can fool GOD! It amazes me that so many try to do so. GOD knows your heart and all your thoughts (Jn.2:2-25; 5:24; 13:18). They loved GOD with their mouth, professing great love and sincere affection to Him, when they had none, like so many today. BEWARE!!!
And they lied unto him with their tongues . . . lying to men is bad, but lying to God is much worse, and it is stupid thing to do, since there is not a word in the tongue of any but is known to Him. He knows everything! http://hisservants.org/is_jesus_god_h_s.htm
Psalm 78:37 For their heart was not right with him, neither were they stedfast in his covenant. (KJV)
For their heart was not right with him . . . was not prepared or ready to any good work, but a continued vile sinner instead, not steady, stable and established as a good man's heart is, who trusts in the LORD . . . but inconstant, undecided and unpredictable, not faithful, not true and not honest . . . but turning aside like a deceitful bow, as is later said (78:57).
Neither were they steadfast in his covenant . . . which was made with them at Sinai, even though they promised to obey, and to do all the LORD said unto them; but this covenant they broke (Ex.24:7), although He was an husband to them (Jer.31:32).
Psalm 78:38 But he, being full of compassion, forgave their iniquity, and destroyed them not: yea, many a time turned he his anger away, and did not stir up all his wrath. (KJV)
But he, being full of compassion . . . GOD is merciful; having bowels of mercy, as a tender mother to the son of her womb . . . meaning that He was ready to forgive them.
Forgave their iniquity . . . forgiveness of sin flows from the tender mercy of GOD; it is because of His mercies and the riches of His grace (kindness we do NOT deserve); yet it comes through the precious Blood (1 Pet.1:18-19) and redeeming Sacrifice of His only begotten SON (Jn.3:16).
Through the propitiation of His SON, Whom He set forth for this purpose, and sent forth in the fulness of time (Gal.4:4) to be the redeeming Sacrifice for sin; GOD forgave the sins of Old Testament saints with that in view; and it is for CHRIST'S sake that GOD the FATHER forgives anyone . . . for without shedding of blood there is no remission (Heb.9:22).
And destroyed them not . . . even though they deserved it, and He certainly was able to do it, He did not destroy them immediately or at once, nor all of them, and not their seed and posterity, who were preserved and brought into the land of Canaan.
Yea, many a time turned he his anger away . . . GOD does not retain His anger for ever, nor does He always carry a resentment, or the presence of it . . . and even though He causes grief, He has and shows compassion. He is said to turn away His anger from His own people when He forgives their sins and comforts their souls, (Ps.85:2; Mic.7:18)), so when He causes the effects of His anger to cease, or stays a plague, or stops a judgment, by means of any of his servants (Num.25:8), His anger is turned away.
And did not stir up all his wrath . . . did not excite, or arouse all His anger, which their sins deserved. His anger was stayed or relaxed, and they were allowed to live.
Psalm 78:39 For he remembered that they were but flesh; a wind that passeth away, and cometh not again. (KJV)
For he remembered that they were but flesh. . . children of flesh, frail, mortal, weak creatures, not able to bear the weight of His anger. With just a stroke of His Hand, and the lighting down of his arm, with the indignation of his wrath (Isa.30:30); that they would be crushed before Him, and He remembereth that we are dust (Ps.103:14; Ecc.12:7). They were clearly sinful and corrupt, prone to evil, easily drawn into sin; it was what their depraved natures persuaded them to do.
A wind that passeth away, and cometh not again . . . such is the life of man, which can rightly be compared to the wind, which moves swiftly, and then passes on, loses its strength and diminishes; so too is the life of man quickly gone, his days move on swiftly, he dies, and does not return to his former state, to a mortal life, although the spirit returns to the body again, but not until the resurrection (1 Cor.15:42-44, 48-54; Phil.3:21); and then NOT of itself, but by the power of GOD (1 Thes.4:13-18). Shortness and frailty of life: (1 Chron.29:15; Job 7:6; 9:25; 14:2; Ps.39:5; 89:47; 90:3-6; 102:11; 103:15-16; Isa.40:6; Jam.1:10; 1 Pet.1:24). GOD does not make use of His great power to crush them; He would much rather show His mercy in saving them.
Their Settlement in Canaan (78:40-55)
Those that receive mercy from GOD, should not be encouraged to sin, because the mercies these receive will simply hasten sin’s punishment . . . but let not those who are under GOD’S rebukes for sin, be encouraged to repent. Dear one, the Holy One of Israel will do what is best for His own honor and glory, and what is best for their good. Their forgetting all the former favors, had led them to limit GOD for the future. GOD made His people to go forth like sheep; and guided them in the wilderness, as a shepherd guides his flock, with all care and tenderness. So it was that JESUS, He brought His church out of the wilderness . . . but no earthly Canaan, no worldly advantages, should ever make us forget that the church today is in the wilderness while it is in this world, and that there remains a far more glorious rest for the people of GOD yet to come.
Psalm 78:40 How oft did they provoke him in the wilderness, and grieve him in the desert! (KJV)
How oft did they provoke him in the wilderness . . . how oft did they rebel against him? Many times! They were extremely stubborn and rebellious; they agitated His displeasure, and gave many reasons for His anger (78:17, 32; Ps.95:8-10; 106:13-32; Heb.3:16-19). They were not only at His mercy, with nothing to help themselves but had many remarkable mercies bestowed upon them; yet they continually committed such sins against GOD that triggered His wrath. Ten times they tempted Him (Num.14:22), therefore that dispensation is called the provocation and day of temptation; for it was a series of rebellion and sin (Ps.95:8-11) . . . . . . . . . . . . . http://www.hisservants.org/israel%27s_ten_failures_h_s.htm
And grieve him in the desert . . . which indicates the same as before, and is spoken after the manner of men (Gen.6:5-6) and like a tender parent is grieved at the disobedience of his child, He is forced to take the rod and chastise it (Pro.10:13; 13:24; 15:10; 19:29; 22:15; 23:14; 26:3; 29:15). The prophet Isaiah says, they vexed or grieved His HOLY SPIRIT (Isa.63:10), the same word is there used as here; see (Eph.4:30). The word here rendered grieve means: (a) to work, to fashion; (b) to suffer pain, to travail, to be afflicted; and then, (c) to cause one to suffer pain, or to afflict. The meaning here seems to be that the conduct of the Hebrews was such as was suited to cause pain, just as the conduct of a disobedient and rebellious child is.
Psalm 78:41 Yea, they turned back and tempted GOD, and limited the Holy One of Israel. (KJV)
Yea, they turned back, and tempted GOD . . . they turned away from Him; they talked of going back to Egypt, and of choosing a captain to lead them back there (Num.14:3-4). They turned back from the LORD and His good ways, choosing their own ways, and following after idols. They AGAIN tempted GOD, not only at Meribah, but in different places; they tempted Him again and again, a total of ten times, as before mentioned.
And limited the Holy One of Israel . . . or they tempted Him by asking a sign from Him, insisting that a miracle be done, by which it might be known whether the LORD was among them or not (Ex.17:7; Mat.16:1). They set bounds to His power and goodness, saying, this He could do, and the other He could not do (78:19). So it is in today’s unbelieving world . . . people want the LORD to prove Himself to them. People try to estimate His character or His power. They seem to set limits or bounds to it, in their estimation, to which He could or could not act. The Israelites thought His power was defined and bounded, and that beyond a certain point He could not help them, again, much like today. We must NOT judge Israel, for we too are prone to sin. We must judge only ourselves! 1 Cor. 11:31 For if we would judge ourselves, we should not be judged. (KJV) . . . The word judge in the Bible means ALL parts of judgment: accusing, examining, condemning . . . and here it means accusing ourselves, condemning ourselves; examining ourselves . . . HOW do we do that? If we would stand back and really look at ourselves, examine ourselves thoroughly, and correct what is wrong before Judgment Day, we would not be judged by GOD in this way. This is talking about believers. We CAN judge ourselves when we are wrong (Ps.32:5; 1 Jn.1:9). If we do NOT judge ourselves, then be assured that He shall indeed judge us.
Psalm 78:42 They remembered not his hand, nor the day when he delivered them from the enemy. (KJV)
They remembered not his hand . . . which brought them out of Egypt, and dashed their enemies in pieces, and which had so often been opened to supply their wants in the wilderness. They forgot the power which showed His omnipotence. There was no limit to His ability to aid them.
Nor the day when he delivered them from the enemy . . . they were delivered out of the hands of Pharaoh king of Egypt; that very memorable day in which, that same day which had been fixed, by promise and prophecy many hundreds of years before, in which the people of the LORD went out of Egypt (Ex.12:40-42), which GOD had fixed over four hundred years before (Gen.15:13), in which GOD delivered them from their great enemy, their oppressor Pharaoh.
Psalm 78:43 How he had wrought his signs in Egypt, and his wonders in the field of Zoan: (KJV)
How he had wrought his signs in Egypt . . . the signs were the plagues which the LORD had brought upon the Egyptians, for refusing to let Israel go (Ex.7:20; 8:6,17,24; 9:6,10,23; 10:13,22; 12:29).
And his wonders in the field of Zoan . . . or in the country of Zoan or Tanis (78:12), a list of these signs and wonders follows; but not all of them, nor in the order in which they were: only seven are mentioned, with which compare the seven vials or last plagues (Rev.16). The wonderful things which He did; are things suited to excite amazement, or astonishment.
Psalm 78:44 And had turned their rivers into blood; and their floods, that they could not drink. (KJV)
And had turned their rivers into blood . . . the Nile River and its seven streams; this was the first of the plagues of Egypt (Ex.7:20), and was a just retaliation for drowning the infants of the Israelites in their river (Ex.1:22), and a like plague will be inflicted on spiritual Egypt, and with equal justice (Rev.11:8).
And their floods, that they could not drink . . . the streams; canals and branches of the Nile, where they usually obtained a supply of water, would be as blood.
Psalm 78:45 He sent divers sorts of flies among them, which devoured them; and frogs, which destroyed them. (KJV)
He sent divers sorts of flies among them . . . this was the fourth plague (Ex.8:24), the word there used simply means swarm, without indicating what the swarm was composed of. It must have been a common species of flies that referred to sucking the blood of animals. The word occurs only in the following places (Ex.8:21-22, 24, 29, 31), where it is rendered swarm, or swarms, and in Psalm 105:31, where (as here) it is rendered different kinds of flies.
Which devoured them . . . corrupted their land (Ex.8:24), possibly produced a disease, which destroyed many of the inhabitants, or consumed the vegetables of the land.
And frogs, which destroyed them . . . with their stench (Ex.8:5), with this plague compare (Rev.16:13), this was the second plague. The order in which the plagues happened is not preserved in this account in the Psalm.
Psalm 78:46 He gave also their increase unto the caterpiller, and their labour unto the locust. (KJV)
He gave also their increase unto the caterpillar . . . a kind of locust, and the same with the locust in the next clause; for we read but of the locust only in (Ex.10:12-14). Some say this is supposed to mean a species of locust rather than the caterpillar, and literally means the devourer . . . but, it is consistently rendered caterpillar as here (1 Ki.8:37; 2 Chron.6:28; Isa.33:4; Joel 1:4; 2:25). It occurs nowhere else.
And their labour unto the locust . . . which devoured the increase of the field, all green grass and trees, all sorts of corn, wheat, barley and rye, and the increase of vineyards, and all fruit trees, on which much labor had been used to manure and cultivate (Rev.9:3) this was the eighth plague. The fruit of their labor; the harvests in their fields was gone, anything green was gone.
Psalm 78:47 He destroyed their vines with hail, and their sycomore trees with frost. (KJV)
He destroyed their vines with hail. . . or killed the vines, this was the seventh plague of Egypt, attended with thunder and lightning, and was very terrible to Pharaoh (Ex.9:22-26), with this compare (Rev.16:21). In the event in Exodus, the hail is said to have smitten man and beast, the herb, and the tree of the field. In this Psalm only one thing is mentioned, maybe meaning the ruin by what would be particularly felt in Palestine, where the culture of the grape was so common and important.
And their sycamore trees with frost . . . sycamore trees were a sort of wild figs, and these with the vines are only mentioned; even though the plague of hail destroyed all kinds of trees; because there were many trees in Egypt, and are put for all others. A sycamore is a tender tree, thriving greatly in sandy plains and warm valleys, but cannot bear the hard, cold mountain. A sharp frost will kill them; and this agrees with the fact that they were killed by it in Egypt.
Psalm 78:48 He gave up their cattle also to the hail, and their flocks to hot thunderbolts. (KJV)
He gave up their cattle also to the hail . . . the hail fell upon man and beast, as well as upon herbs and trees (Ex.9:22-25).
And their flocks to hot thunderbolts . . . which were killed by them: this is to be understood of the fire that was mingled with the hail, and ran upon the ground, and destroyed their flocks (Ex.9:23). The destruction is caused by the lightning, and not by the thunder.
Psalm 78:49 He cast upon them the fierceness of his anger, wrath, and indignation, and trouble, by sending evil angels among them. (KJV)
He cast upon them the fierceness of his anger . . . this verse is intended to describe the last, and the most dreaded of the plagues that came upon the Egyptians, the slaying of their first-born; and so, there is a buildup of anger, fierce anger, resentment, trouble and wrath. All these expressions are meant to be definite and forceful; all these things were combined when the first-born were slain. There was no form of affliction that could surpass this; and in this trial all the expressions of the divine displeasure seemed to be exhausted. It was meant that this should be the last of the plagues; it was meant that Egypt would be humbled, and would finally be made willing that the people of Israel go.
Wrath, and indignation, and trouble . . . are thought by some to mean the other plagues, which are not specifically mentioned; or possibly they express the manner in which they were all inflicted, in great wrath and hot displeasure of GOD for their sins and iniquities, and which were particularly shown.
By sending evil angels among them . . . this does NOT mean the angels He sent were evil, for there are no evil angels in Heaven . . . this means these angels were the instruments GOD used or sent to bring evil things upon the Egyptians, as good angels often do. This no doubt refers to the slaying of the first-born in Egypt (Ex.11:4-5; 12:29-30). This work is ascribed to the action of a destroyer (Ex.12:23; Heb.11:28), and the reference seems to be to a destroying angel, an angel employed and commissioned to accomplish such a work (2 Sam.19:35; 24:16). The indication here is not that the angel himself was evil or wicked, but that he was the messenger of evil or calamity; he was the instrument by which these afflictions were brought upon them.
Psalm 78:50 He made a way to his anger; he spared not their soul from death, but gave their life over to the pestilence; (KJV)
He made a way to his anger . . . nothing could obstruct GOD’S anger, nor hinder the carrying it out. The LORD had weighed it in the balance of justice, and balanced his anger to their crimes. He punished them according to their just deserts.
He spared not their soul from death . . . He did not spare their lives; He gave them over to death.
But gave their life over to the pestilence . . . which some understand to be their cattle, and of the murrain (disease) that came upon them, by which they were destroyed, and which was the fifth plague of Egypt (Ex.9:3).
Psalm 78:51 And smote all the firstborn in Egypt; the chief of their strength in the tabernacles of Ham: (KJV)
And smote all the firstborn in Egypt . . . from the prince to the lowly peasant; and not just the firstborn of men, but of all their beasts as well (Ex.11:5).
The chief of their strength . . . or first of it, as the firstborn is called (Gen.49:3). Those on whom they relied; their firstborn; their pride; their glory; their heirs.
In the tabernacles of Ham . . . in the several cities, towns, villages, and houses of the Egyptians, the descendants of cursed Ham (Gen.9:21-25); for Mizraim, from whom the Egyptians have their name, and from where they sprung, was a son of Ham (Gen.10:6). Perhaps No may be for the most part meant (Nah.3:8), the same with Memphis(Hos.9:6) and which indicates the mansion or palace of Ammon, or Ham (Gen.10:6; Ps.105:23, 27; 106:22). The death of the firstborn was the tenth and last plague; and according to some, the plagues of Egypt went on nonstop for forty days.
Psalm 78:52 But made his own people to go forth like sheep, and guided them in the wilderness like a flock. (KJV)
But made his own people to go forth like sheep . . . the people of Israel, whom the LORD chose to be His peculiar people (Ex.19:5; Ps.135:4) above all others; these He caused to go forth out of Egypt, with a mighty hand and stretched out arm; like sheep, defenseless, harmless, timid, fearful and weak, not a dog dared to move his tongue at them. The awesome power of GOD was magnificently displayed as He delivered His poor, helpless and oppressed people. The LORD was a Shepherd to them, defending them; providing for them; leading them, just as a loving shepherd does his flock (Psalm 23).
And guided them in the wilderness like a flock . . . by the hands of Moses and Aaron (Ps.77:20). He also went before them as the Shepherd of the flock, in a pillar of cloud by day, and in a pillar of fire by night (Ex.13:21-22); keeping them together as a flock, from scattering, straying, and being lost; directing their way in the barren wilderness, and protecting them from all dangers and enemies.
Psalm 78:53 And he led them on safely, so that they feared not: but the sea overwhelmed their enemies. (KJV)
And he led them on safely . . . through the sea, on dry ground, where the waters stood firm and high on each side of them (Ex.14:16, 22); and through the wilderness, in which were serpents and scorpions (Deut.8:15). They had no reason for alarm, for He proved Himself well able and willing to defend them.
So that they feared not . . . for although they feared for a time at the Red Sea, their fears were soon quieted, and they by faith passed through the Red Sea as on dry ground (Ex.14:22) and their fears were totally gone, when they saw the Egyptians dead on the sea shore.
But the sea overwhelmed their enemies . . . or covered them; the waters returned, overflowing and drowning the Egyptians (Ex.14:28-31; 15:10).
Psalm 78:54 And he brought them to the border of his sanctuary, even to this mountain, which his right hand had purchased. (KJV)
And he brought them to the border of his sanctuary . . . some versions render this, to the mountain of his holiness; meaning His Holy Mountain. But the reference seems to be to the whole land of Canaan. The LORD brought them to the borders of that land . . . the Land of Promise . . . the holy land. They who came out from Egypt did NOT enter that land, with the exception of Caleb and Joshua (Num.14:30; 26:63-65; 32:11-13; Deut.1:34-36; Josh.14:6-15), but they were taken to its borders before all of them fell. The Hebrew people came to the Promised Land, and secured its possession, which the LORD had sanctified, and set apart for them; and of Jerusalem, the Holy City, the City of the great GOD, and of the Temple where His residence was to be.
Even to this mountain, which his right hand purchased . . . mount Moriah, on which the Temple was built (Ps.44:3). It was on the very mountain, on part of which David had his palace; and this was obtained and possessed, not by the power nor through the merits of the Israelites, but through the power and goodness of GOD. The meaning is not that the people who came out of Egypt actually inherited that mountain, but that their descendants, the people of GOD, had been given possession of it.
Psalm 78:55 He cast out the heathen also before them, and divided them an inheritance by line, and made the tribes of Israel to dwell in their tents. (KJV)
He cast out the heathen also before them . . . the seven pagan nations, the Hittites, Girgashites, Amorites, Canaanites, Perizzites, Hivites, and Jebusites (Deut.7:1).
And divided them an inheritance by line . . . the land of Canaan was divided among the nine and a half tribes by Joshua, the other two and a half having had their portion assigned them on the other side; this distribution was made very exactly by lot, by line, and measure, so that every
tribe had their proper portion and inheritance (Josh.13:6-7; 14:1-5).
And made the tribes of Israel to dwell in their tents . . . in the cities, towns, villages and houses of the heathen cast out before them. They would now dwell securely and quietly, no longer roaming from place to place, but having a permanent residence and home.
Fulfillment in the Ten Plagues.
#1. Ex. 7:14-24/Blood. Fish die, the river smells, the people are without water. (Compare: Rev.8:10-11; 16:4).
#2 Ex. 8:1-15/Frogs. Frogs come up from the water and completely cover the land.
#3 Ex. 8:16-19/Lice. All dust of Egypt becomes masses of lice.
#4 Ex. 8:20-32/Flies. Swarms of flies cover the land. (Israel exempt).
#5 Ex. 9:1-7/Livestock. All the Egyptian livestock dies . . . but none of Israel’s cattle is even sick. (Israel exempt).
#6 Ex. 9:8-12/Boils. Horrible boils break out on everyone in Egypt. (Compare: Rev.16:1-2). (Israel exempt).
#7 Ex. 9:13-35/Hail. Hailstorms kill all the slaves and animals left out or unprotected and strip or destroy almost every plant. (Compare: Rev.8:7; 11:19; 16:21). (Israel exempt).
#8 Ex. 10:1-20/Locusts. Locusts cover Egypt and eat everything left after the hail. (Compare: Rev.9:1-12 different locusts).
#9 Ex. 10:21-29/Darkness. Total darkness covers Egypt for three days so no one can even move. (Compare: Rev.16:10-11). (Israel exempt).
#10 Ex. 11:1-12:33/Death of Firstborn. The firstborn of all the people and cattle of Egypt die . . . but Israel is spared. Pharaoh was indeed stubborn! It took 10 plagues to convince Pharaoh to let the people go! (Israel exempt, Ex.12:13, 23).
The Mercies of GOD to Israel
Contrasted with Israel’s Ingratitude (78:56-72)
Very soon after the Israelites were settled in Canaan, the children were like their fathers. GOD had given them His testimonies (His Laws), but they turned back away from Him. Arrogant sins render even the Israelites hateful to GOD’S holiness, and exposed them to His uprightness. Dear one, all those whom the LORD forsakes become easy prey to the destroyer (Judg.16:24; Job 15:21; Ps.17:4), and sooner or later, GOD shall disgrace ALL His enemies. There is a crowning, finishing example of GOD’S favor to Israel; because CHRIST, the great and good Shepherd, who was first humbled and then exalted; and of whom it was foretold, that He would be filled with the SPIRIT of wisdom and understanding (Isa.11:2). On the uprightness of His heart, and the skillfulness of His hands, all His subjects may rely; and of the increase of his government and peace there shall be no end (Isa.9:7; Lk.1:33). Every trial of human nature confirms the testimony of Scripture, that the heart is deceitful above all things, and desperately wicked (Jer.17:9), and nothing but being created anew by the HOLY GHOST can cure the ungodliness of anyone.
Psalm 78:56 Yet they tempted and provoked the most high GOD, and kept not his testimonies: (KJV)
Yet they tempted and provoked the most high GOD . . . after the death of Joshua, and in the times of the judges, Israel highly provoked GOD by worshipping and serving the gods of the nations, and forsaking the LORD their GOD, who had done such great things for them (Judg. 2:11-13). They really tried the patience of GOD, and provoked Him to anger after they were settled peacefully in the Promised Land. The purpose here is to show that it was the character of the people, and that they were prone to depart from GOD (78:10-11, 17, 40).
And kept not his testimonies . . . did not keep the laws of GOD, which testified and declared His mind and His will; nor did they observe His Word and ordinances, which testified of His grace, and of the way of salvation by JESUS CHRIST (Jn.14:6; Acts 4:12; 1 Jn.5:10-13).
Psalm 78:57 But turned back, and dealt unfaithfully like their fathers: they were turned aside like a deceitful bow. (KJV)
But turned back . . . (78:41) from GOD and His worship, rejected Him and turned to idols.
And dealt unfaithfully, like their fathers . . . did in the wilderness (78:8).
They were turned aside like a deceitful bow . . . that promises to carry the arrow right, but carries it another way so that it misses the mark (Hos.7:16). Their whole history shows how right this charge; sad to say, the history of many of the professing people of GOD (Jews and Gentile, Gal.3:26-29) has shown how the description applies to them.
Psalm 78:58 For they provoked him to anger with their high places, and moved him to jealousy with their graven images. (KJV)
For they provoked him to anger with their high places . . . which they built to Baal, and other heathen gods. High places is where idols were worshipped; usually on mountains or elevated places (Lev.26:30; 1 Ki.3:2; 12:31-32; 2 Ki.17:32; 2 Chron.33:17)
And moved him to jealousy with their graven images . . . which they worshipped (Judg.10:6). This idolatry was spiritual adultery, and made the LORD very jealous of them, who stood in the relation of a husband to them, as a man becomes jealous by the immoral and sinful conduct of his wife; and such a course of life the Israelites lived, throughout the reigns of the judges, at certain seasons, until the times of Eli and Samuel, when the ark was carried captive, of which mention is made in the following verses. Graven images is here put for idols in general.
Jealous God: (Ex.20:5; 34:14; Deut.4:24; 5:9; 6:15; Josh.24:19; Eze.39:25; Nah.1:2).
Psalm 78:59 When GOD heard this, he was wroth, and greatly abhorred Israel: (KJV)
When GOD heard this . . . literally, GOD heard, GOD knew, He was well acquainted with it. He heard their prayers to false gods; He heard their praises sung in honor of idols. He saw their building high places, and sacrificing on them, their making and worshipping graven images.
He was wroth . . . wroth = angry, furious, uncompromising; this is to be understood of the greater part of Israel in general, and is to be explained by the number of times of His great displeasure with them in the times of the judges; when His anger rose hot against them for their idolatries and other sins, and he delivered them up into the hands of their enemies (Jud.2:11-13, 19-20; 3:7, 12; 4:1-2; 6:1; 10:6-7, 10-14; 13:1).
And greatly abhorred Israel . . . the idea is that the LORD rejected them with disgust and hatred. The reference is not only to His internal feeling or emotion, but to the act which is properly accompanied by such a feeling. He cast them off; He treated them as if they were not His people. Greatly shows just how intense He felt.
Psalm 78:60 So that he forsook the tabernacle of Shiloh, the tent which he placed among men; (KJV)
So that he forsook the tabernacle of Shiloh . . . the Tabernacle Moses built in the wilderness at the command of the LORD, and according to the pattern showed to him (Josh.18:1); and which, when the Israelites were settled in the land of Canaan, was set up in Shiloh. Shiloh means a place of rest, and the name seems to have been given to this place as such a place, or as a place where the ark might abide after its migrations. Shiloh was a city within the limits of the tribe of Ephraim, on a mountain north of Bethel. Here the Ark of GOD remained for many years after it came into the Promised Land (Josh.18:1; Judg.18:31; 21:12, 19; 1 Sam. 1:3, 24; 2:14; 4:3-4). The ark, after it was taken by the Philistines, was never returned to Shiloh, but was placed successively at Nob (1 Sam.21:1-6), and at Gibeon (1 Ki.3:4), until David pitched a Tabernacle for it on Mount Zion (1 Chron.15:1). The meaning seems to be, that as a result of the sins of the people, the place of worship was finally and forever removed from the tribe of Ephraim, within whose limits Shiloh was, to the tribe of Judah, and to Mount Zion.
The tent which he placed among men . . . it was as a moveable tent, moved from place to place, and was to continue at longest but for a while, as the whole Tabernacle worship and service was to do. It was this Tabernacle where the divine Majesty dwelt, and among men . . . vile, sinful, wicked and ungrateful men; which was a wonderful instance of His friendliness and goodness (1 Ki.8:27), but when their wickedness grew to such a degree that was inexcusable, He forsook it and removed it elsewhere (Jer.7:12).
Psalm 78:61 And delivered his strength into captivity, and his glory into the enemy's hand. (KJV)
And delivered his strength into captivity . . . meaning the Ark of the Covenant, called His strength, and the ark of his strength (2 Chron.6:41; Ps.105:4; 132:8), because it was a token of His strength, and by means of which He displayed it, as when the Israelites passed through Jordan into Canaan's land, and encompassed the city of Jericho (Num.10:33; Josh.3:3, 11; 6:1-16; 1 Sam.4:3-11). The Ark of the Covenant was symbolic of CHRIST, the Man of GOD'S right Hand, in Whom there is strength and righteousness for His people . . . but this Ark was delivered into the hands of the Philistines and carried captive (1 Sam.4:11). One renders it, His Law because the two tables of the Law were in the Ark (Ps.68). So the Ark was considered the symbol of GOD’S power, which established the defense of the people; the Ark was the symbol of the Presence of GOD, which when with them, was their protection. The reference here is to the time when the Ark was taken by the Philistines in the days of Eli (1 Sam. 4:3-11).What is the Ark of the Covenant? https://www.gotquestions.org/ark-of-the-covenant.html
What was in the Ark of the Covenant? (1). The Ten Commandments Ex.25:16; 31:18. (2). Aaron’s rod (Ex.7:8-23; 8:1-19. (3). Jar of manna Ex.16:31-35; Num.1:7-9.
And his glory . . . the Ark of the Covenant represented GOD’S glory.
Into the enemy’s hand . . . when the Ark was taken by the Philistines . . . GOD’S glory was then in the enemies’ hand. The Ark being the glory of GOD, over which upon the mercy seat the glorious majesty of the LORD was . . . when Phinehas's wife, when she heard the Ark was taken, went into labor, and brought forth a son, and called him Ichabod, saying, the glory is departed from Israel, for the Ark of GOD is taken (1 Sam. 4:17-22).
Psalm 78:62 He gave his people over also unto the sword; and was wroth with his inheritance. (KJV)
He gave His people over also to the sword . . . when the Ark was taken, thirty thousand of the children of Israel fell on that occasion (1 Sam.4:10-11).
And was wroth with his inheritance . . . the above shows how furious the LORD was, and even though they were His inheritance, His portion and His possession, and He had chosen them for it (Ps.33:12).
Psalm 78:63 The fire consumed their young men; and their maidens were not given to marriage. (KJV)
The fire consumed their young men . . . fire here could be considered as an image of destructive war (Num.21:28). The idea here is, that the young people had been cut off in war.
And their maidens were not given to marriage . . . the young men to whom they would have been married, being slain in battle. There were no marriage celebrations; no songs such as were usually composed on such occasions in praise of those who were brides. The maidens died before they could be married.
Psalm 78:64 Their priests fell by the sword; and their widows made no lamentation. (KJV)
Their priests fell by the sword . . . Hophni and Phinehas, the sons of Eli (1 Sam.4:4, 11, 17), and other priests; which revealed the cruelty of the enemy . . . they were NOT to spare unarmed men, as the priests were . . . and the justice of GOD pursued these very wicked men, whose character, office nor wealth could secure them from GOD’S wrath. It was and is, considered a special calamity that the ministers of religion were cut down in war.
And their widows made no lamentation . . . the widows did not mourn for their husbands the priests, who fell by the sword; particularly the widow of Phinehas (1 Sam.4:19), who upon the news fell into labor, and as soon as she brought forth her child, and while she lived took no notice of the death of her husband, nor lamented that, only that the ark of the LORD was taken. The meaning is not that there was a lack of affection or love on the part of the friends of the slain, or that there was no real grief, but that there was no chance to display it in the usual way, because of war.
Psalm 78:65 Then the Lord awaked as one out of sleep, and like a mighty man that shouteth by reason of wine. (KJV)
Then the Lord awaked as one out of sleep . . . the LORD seemed to have been sleeping, or to have been inattentive to what was occurring. The LORD is patient and longsuffering, He seemed to be asleep, while the Ark was taken, and the Israelites to be slain; but He aroused Himself to inflict vengeance on the enemies of His people. He was indeed awake when He wielded His power in smiting the Philistines, and causing their idol to fall before His Ark
(1 Sam.5:1-7). Longsuffering, patience of God: (Ex.34:6; Num.14:18; Lev.26:44; Neh.9:31; Ps. 78:38; 86:15; Jer.15:15; Mat.17:17; Rom.2:4; 9:22; 2 Cor.6:6; Gal.5:22; Eph.4:2; Col.1:11; 3:12; 1 Tim.1:16; 2 Tim.3:10; 4:2; 1 Pet.3:20; 2 Pet.3:9, 15)
And like a mighty man . . . the reference is probably to a warrior, who having drunk wine, goes out with great courage to meet his enemy, shouting as he goes, and assured of victory. This must be applied to GOD with decency, consistent with the glory of His majesty, and the perfections of His nature; and seems to express His power and readiness to help His people, and take vengeance on His enemies (Isa.42:13).
Psalm 78:66 And he smote his enemies in the hinder parts: he put them to a perpetual reproach. (KJV)
And he smote his enemies in the hinder parts . . . not the Israelites, as some interpret it, but the Philistines, who in another battle were put to flight, and turned away, and so were hit in their hinder parts. Or this also could refer to the Philistines being smitten with hemorrhoids, or piles in their posteriors, while the ark was retained a captive by them (1 Sam.5:6-7). The Targum says: and he smote them that troubled them with hemorrhoids in their posteriors. One version says, he smote his enemies on the back parts of the seat.
He put them to a perpetual reproach . . . either by causing their idol Dagon to fall before His Ark (1 Sam.5:1-5), and be broken upon the threshold of the house of the idol; in memory of which the priests ever after, nor any that came in there, trod upon the threshold (1 Sam.5:5), or rather through their sending golden images of their hemorrhoids, and golden mice along with the ark, which were reserved to their perpetual reproach. Other instances of the LORD'S regard to Israel follow, in providing a proper place for the ark, and appointing a suitable governor over the people.
Psalm 78:67 Moreover he refused the tabernacle of Joseph, and chose not the tribe of Ephraim: (KJV)
Moreover, he refused the tabernacle of Joseph . . . meaning the Tabernacle of Moses, which had been for a long time at Shiloh, a city in the tribe of Ephraim, the son of Joseph; when the Ark was brought back by the Philistines, it was not returned to Shiloh, but carried to Kirjathjearim (1 Sam.6:21; 7:1-2) where it remained twenty years. This is the completion of the statement in Psalm 78:60. The plan is to show that there had been a transfer of the preeminence from the tribe of Ephraim to the tribe of Judah, and from Shiloh to Zion. Joseph is mentioned here as the father of Ephraim, from whom one of the most influential and numerous of the tribes as named. Jacob had twelve sons, from whom the twelve tribes for the most part took their name. But the tribe of Levi, was devoted to the work of priests, and was not counted as one of the twelve, the number being made up by giving to the descendants of the two sons of Joseph: Ephraim and Manasseh (Gen.48:5), and because of this, the name Joseph does not appear as one of the twelve tribes. But, here Joseph is mentioned, as the ancestor of one of them, that of Ephraim, from whom the priority and supremacy were withdrawn in favor of the tribe of Judah.
And chose not the tribe of Ephraim . . . the same thing is intended as before; the same thing repeated in other words.
Psalm 78:68 But chose the tribe of Judah, the mount Zion which he loved. (KJV)
But chose the tribe of Judah . . . to be both the seat of kingly power and government, and of religious worship. Jerusalem was in the tribe of Judah, and David, who was of that tribe, dwelt there, and Solomon his son, and all the kings of Judah afterwards. It was there the Temple was built, into which the Ark of the Covenant was put, and where the tribes went to worship GOD.
Thus, the ancient prediction in regard to the supremacy of Judah was fulfilled (Gen.49:6-10).
The mount Zion, which he loved . . . where the city of David was; into which the Ark of the Covenant was brought when removed from Gibeah (2 Sam.6:3-4), and on part of which the Temple was built: the choice of this place, for such a purpose, was from love (Ps.87:1-3). Mount Zion was characteristic of the church, of which also arises from the everlasting and unchangeable love of GOD to it, for which the LORD had an affection (Ps.48:1-3; 68:16; 76:1-2; 87:2-3; 132:13-15; Joel 2:32). Mount Zion (Sion): (2 Sam.5:7; 1 Ki.8:1; 2 Ki.19:21; 1 Chron.11:5; Ps.2:6; 9:11; 48:2, 12; 50:2; 51:18; 69:35; 74:2; 76:2; 87:2; 97:8; 102:13; 110:2; 132:13;135:21; Isa.1:27; 14:32; 2:23; 33:20; 40:9; 60:14; Jer.50:5; Lam.5:18; Eze.48:15; Joel 2:1; 3:17, 21; Am.1:2; Mic.4:8; Rom.11:26; Heb.12:22; Rev.14:1).
Psalm 78:69 And he built his sanctuary like high palaces, like the earth which he hath established for ever. (KJV)
He built his sanctuary like high palaces . . . the Temple of GOD at Jerusalem was the only one in the land, and stood as prominent on Mount Zion, just as the horn of the unicorn or rhinoceros does upon its head. It was there that GOD established His Ark, to go no more out as long as the Temple should last. Before this time it was often in a travelling state, not only in the wilderness, but afterwards in the Promised Land (78:60). The Temple was not then built; and, when reared, it was not on Mount Zion, but on Mount Moriah. The name Zion, however, was often given to the whole city of Jerusalem. The word palaces is not in the original. The Hebrew means simply high places, like hills or mountains. The meaning is, that His sanctuary was exalted, as if it were placed on a high hill. It was a conspicuous object; it could be seen from afar; it was the most prominent thing in the land (Isa.2:2).
Like the earth which he hath established for ever . . . permanent and proven. The Earth is often represented as founded or established on a solid basis, a symbol of stability and perpetuity.
Psalm 78:70 He chose David also his servant, and took him from the sheepfolds: (KJV)
He chose David also his servant . . . the LORD chose David to be king of Israel, the youngest of his father's family, when He rejected all the rest (1 Sam.16:7-12). David, a well-known type of our Lord JESUS CHRIST, and the meaning of His Name Beloved agrees with Him, Who is beloved of GOD, as His SON, and as Man and Mediator; and beloved of men, of all the saints: and so likewise His character as a servant suits him; who not only frequently has the name of a servant (Ps.89:19), but appeared in the form of one, (Phil.2:7), had the work of a servant to do, which He has accomplished, including the great work of our salvation (Jn.17:4), in doing which, and all things leading to and relating to it, He took the utmost delight and pleasure, and used the greatest diligence and perseverance (Jn.4:34) and justly acquired the character of a faithful and righteous servant (Isa.53:11), and to this work and office He was chosen and called by His FATHER (Isa.42:1).
And took him from the sheepfolds . . . from where David was fetched when Samuel was sent by the LORD to anoint him (1 Sam.16:11), so too, Moses, while he was feeding his father's sheep, was called to be the saviour and deliverer of Israel (Ex.3:1), and Amos was taken from following the flock to be a prophet of the LORD (Am.7:14-15). And as David was a type of CHRIST, this may express the condition of our LORD, in His state of humiliation, before He was exalted and exercised His kingly office.
Psalm 78:71 From following the ewes great with young he brought him to feed Jacob his people, and Israel his inheritance. (KJV)
From following the ewes great with young . . . or from following after them. It was usual with the shepherd to put the sheep in front of him, and to follow them, gently driving them, which expresses his care and tenderness of them (Gen.33:13). The same is noticed of David's antitype, the great and good Shepherd of the sheep (Isa.40:11). David was a type of CHRIST as a shepherd; as he kept his father's sheep, so too CHRIST keeps those that the Father has given Him (Jn.10:27-30). Just as David kept his flock with great care and courage, and in safety (1 Sam.17:34), so too does the Lord JESUS CHRIST keep His flock in safety, and preserves it from Satan, the roaring lion (1 Pet.5:8), and from grievous wolves (Acts 20:29) that enter into it, and every beast of prey that would devour it; and mainly as David took special care of those that were with young, so too does the LORD take special care of such that are newborn babes.
He brought him to feed Jacob his people, and Israel his inheritance . . . to rule over them: this is said in reference to His having been a shepherd; and nothing is more common than for kings to be represented as shepherds, and their acts of government by leading and feeding them (Ps.23).
Bad shepherds: (Isa.56:10-11; Jer.10:21’ Eze.34:2-6; Zec.10:2-3; Jn.10:7-13).
Psalm 78:72 So he fed them according to the integrity of his heart; and guided them by the skilfulness of his hands. (KJV)
So he fed them according to the integrity of his heart . . . reigned over the people of Israel, in such a way as showed uprightness of heart, and that He was, as a man after GOD's own heart (Acts13:22), by his administration of government, that he sought not his own honor and interest, but the good of his people, and the glory of GOD; and this character, in the fullest extent, and highest sense of it, best agrees with CHRIST, the righteous branch raised unto David (Jer.23:5).
And guided them by the skilfulness of his hands . . . or by the caution of his hands, with the most perfect wisdom and skill. Hands are made mention of, partly in reference to the shepherd, as David had been, who carries a staff in his hand, and guides his flock with it; and partly with respect to the acts and administration of government, which were wisely performed by him. He made wise laws for his people and soldiers, and put them in execution; he behaved wisely in the court and in the camp; but was greatly and infinitely exceeded by his antitype, the servant of the LORD, that should deal prudently (Isa.52:13), and who is abundantly qualified for it, as being not only the Wisdom of God (1 Cor.1:24, 30) and the all wise GOD, and as Mediator, has the spirit of wisdom on Him (Isa.11:2), and the treasures of wisdom in Him (Col.2:3).
The idea is, that David administered the government with integrity and uprightness. This is a beautiful tribute to the integrity and purity of the administration of David. It is not the language of flattery; it is a simple statement, and it is a true statement of what the administration of David was, with the exception of the matter of Uriah (Ps.51), over which he afterward wept so bitterly. His administration was very just, pure, impartial, wise and benignant; probably none among people have been more so.
Psalm 68 prophecies Fulfilled in New Testament
#1. To give gifts to men. Psalm 68:18 Thou hast ascended on high, thou hast led captivity captive: thou hast received gifts for men; yea, for the rebellious also, that the LORD GOD might dwell among them. (KJV) Fulfilled: 1 Corinthians 12:4 Now there are diversities of gifts, but the same SPIRIT. (KJV) 1 Corinthians 12:31 But covet earnestly the best gifts: and yet shew I unto you a more excellent way. (KJV) Ephesians 4:7-16 But unto every one of us is given grace according to the measure of the gift of Christ. 8 Wherefore he saith, When he ascended up on high, he led captivity captive, and gave gifts unto men. 9 (Now that he ascended, what is it but that he also descended first into the lower parts of the earth? 10 He that descended is the same also that ascended up far above all heavens, that he might fill all things.) 11 And he gave some, apostles; and some, prophets; and some, evangelists; and some, pastors and teachers; 12 For the perfecting of the saints, for the work of the ministry, for the edifying of the body of Christ: 13 Till we all come in the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of GOD, unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the fulness of Christ: 14 That we henceforth be no more children, tossed to and fro, and carried about with every wind of doctrine, by the sleight of men, and cunning craftiness, whereby they lie in wait to deceive; 15 But speaking the truth in love, may grow up into him in all things, which is the head, even Christ: 16 From whom the whole body fitly joined together and compacted by that which every joint supplieth, according to the effectual working in the measure of every part, maketh increase of the body unto the edifying of itself in love. (KJV)
#2. Ascention into Heaven. Psalm 68:18Thou hast ascended on high, thou hast led captivity captive: thou hast received gifts for men; yea, for the rebellious also, that the LORD GOD might dwell among them. (KJV) Fulfilled: Luke 24:51 And it came to pass, while he blessed them, he was parted from them, and carried up into heaven. (KJV) Act 1:9-11 And when he had spoken these things, while they beheld, he was taken up; and a cloud received him out of their sight. 10 And while they looked stedfastly toward heaven as he went up, behold, two men stood by them in white apparel; 11 Which also said, Ye men of Galilee, why stand ye gazing up into heaven? this same Jesus, which is taken up from you into heaven, shall so come in like manner as ye have seen him go into heaven. (KJV)
PSALM 68 (Messiah’s Ascension) (1). This Psalm is quoted by Paul in Ephesians 4:8-9 when listing CHRIST’S gifts to the church (68:18). (2). The stronger man rescued us from the strong man and threw him out (Luke 11:20-22; Rev 12:5-11). (3). Jesus was victorious over death and saved His people, so GOD gave Him spoils to distribute (Is 53:10-11; Ac 2:33). (4). The glorious ascension of JESUS CHRIST (Ps.78:18; Mk.16:19; LOk.24:60-51; Acts 1:9).
JESUS, the CHRIST
‘JESUS’ is our LORD’S personal Name.
Matthew 1:21 And she shall bring forth a son, and thou shalt call his name Jesus: for he shall save his people from their sins. [KJV]
‘Christ’ is our Lord’s title, corresponding to the Hebrew name ‘Messiah,’ meaning ‘Anointed One.’ There are many names and/or titles which refer to Him in the Bible.
• Adam. 1 Cor. 15:45 • Advocate. 1 John 2:1 • Almighty. Rev. 1:8 • Alpha and Omega. Rev. 1:8 • Amen. Rev. 3:14 • Angel of His presence. Is. 63:9 • Anointed. Psalm 2:2 • Apostle. Heb. 3:1 • Arm of the Lord. Is. 51:9-10 • Author and finisher of our faith. Heb. 12:2 • Beginning and end. Rev. 3:14; Rev. 22:13 • Beloved. Ep. 1:6 • Bishop. 1 Pet. 2:25 • Blessed and only Potentate. 1 Tim. 6:15 • Branch. Jeremiah 23:5; Zech. 3:8 • Bread of life. John 6:48 • Bridegroom. Mat. 9:15 • Bright and morning star. Rev. 22:16 • Brightness of the Father’s glory. Heb. 1:3 • Captain of the Lord’s host. Jos.5:14 • Captain of salvation. Heb.2:10 • Carpenter. Mark 6:3 • Carpenter’s son. Mat.13:55 • Chief Shepherd. 1 Pet.5:4 • Chief corner stone. 1 Pet.2:6 • Chiefest among ten thousand. Song 5:10 • Child. Is.9:6; Luke 2:27; 2:43 • Chosen of GOD. 1 Peter 2:4 • Christ. Mat. 1:16; Luke 9:20 • The Christ. Mat.16:20; Mark 14:61 • Christ, a King. Luke 23:2 • Christ Jesus. Acts 19:4; Ro. 3:24; 8:1; 1 Cor. 1:2, 30; Heb.3:1; 1 Pet. 5:10, 14 • Christ Jesus our Lord. Ro.8:39; 1 Tim. 1:12 • Christ of GOD. Luke 9:20 • Christ, the chosen of GOD. Luke 23:35 • Christ the Lord. Luke 2:11 • Christ the power of GOD. 1 Cor. 1:24 • Christ the wisdom of GOD. 1 Cor. 1:24 • Christ, the Son of GOD. Acts 9:20 • Christ, Son of the Blessed. Mark 14:61 • Commander. Is. 55:4 • Consolation of Israel. Luke 2:25 • Corner stone. Ep. 2:20 • Counsellor. Is. 9:6 • Covenant of the people. Is. 42:6 • David. Jer.30:9 • Dayspring. Luke 1:78 • Day star. 2 Pet. 1:19 • Deliverer. Ro. 11:26 • Desire of all nations. Hag.2:7 • Door. John 10:7 • Elect. Is. 42:1 • Emmanuel. Is.7:14 • Ensign. Is. 11:10 • Eternal life. 1 John 5:20 • Everlasting Father. Is. 9:6 • Faithful and True. Rev. 19:11 • Faithful witness.. Rev. 1:5 • Faithful and true witness. Rev. 3:14 • Finisher of faith. Heb. 12:2 • First and last. Rev. 1:17; 2:8; 22:13 • First begotten. Heb. 1:6 • First begotten of the dead. Rev. 1:5 • Firstborn. Ps. 89:27 • Foundation. Is.28:16 • Fountain. Zech. 13:1 • Forerunner. Heb.6:20 • Friend of sinners. Mat. 11:19 • Gift of GOD. John 4:10 • Glory of Israel. Luke 2:32 • GOD. John 1:1; 10:30 • GOD blessed forever. Ro.9:5 • GOD manifest in the flesh. 1 Tim. 3:16 • GOD of Israel, the Saviour. Is 45:15 • GOD of the whole earth. Is. 54:5 • GOD our Saviour. 1 Tim. 2:3 •GOD’S dear Son. Col. 1:13 • GOD with us. Mat.1:23 • Good Master. Mat. 19:16 • Governor. Mat. 2:6 • Great shepherd of the sheep. Heb.13:20 • Head of the church. Ep. 5:23 • Heir of all things. Heb. 1:2 • High priest. Heb. 4:14 • Head of every man. 1 Cor. 11:3 • Head of the church. Col. 1:18 • Head of the corner. Mat. 21:42 • Holy child Jesus. Acts 4:30 • Holy one. Ps. 16:10; Acts 3:14 • Holy one of GOD. Mark 1:24 • Holy one of Israel. Is. 41:14; 54:5 • Holy thing. Luke 1:35 • Hope (our). 1 Tim. 1:1 • Horn of salvation. Luke 1:69 • I Am. John 8:58 • Image of GOD. Heb. 1:3 • Israel. Is. 49:3 • Jehovah. Is.40:3 • Jehovah’s fellow. Zech. 13:7 • Jesus. Mat.1:21 • Jesus Christ. Mat.1:1; John 1:17; 17:3; Acts 2:38; 4:10; 9:34; 10:36; 16:18; Ro. 1:1; 1:3; 1:6; 2:16; 5:15; 5:17; 6:3; 1 Cor. 1:1; 1:4; 2:2; 2 Cor. 1:19; 4:6; 13:5; Gal. 2:16; Phil. 1:8; 2:11; 1 Tim. 1:15; Heb.13:8; 1 John 1:7; 2:1 • Jesus Christ our Lord. Ro. 1:3; 6:11; 6:23; 1 Cor. 1:9; 7:25 • Jesus Christ our Saviour. Tit. 3:6 • Jesus of Nazareth. Mark 1:24; Luke 24:19 • Jesus of Nazareth, King of the Jews. John 19:19 • Jesus, the King of the Jews. Mat. 27:37 • Jesus, the Son of GOD. Heb. 4:14 • Jesus, the Son of Joseph. John 6:42 • Judge. Acts 10:42 • Just man. Mat.27:19 • Just one. Acts 3:14; 7:52; 22:14 • Just person. Matthew 27:24 • King. Mat.21:5 • King of Israel. John 1:49 • King of the Jews. Mat.2:2 • King of saints. Rev. 15:3 • King of kings. 1 Tim. 6:15; Rev. 17:14 • King of glory. Ps.24:7-10 • King of Zion. Mat.21:5 • King over all the earth. Zech. 14:9 • Lamb. Rev. 5:6; 5:8; 6:16; 7:9-10; 7:17; 12:11; 13:8; 13:11; 14:1; 14:4; 15:3; 17:14; 19:7; 19:9; 21:9; 21:14; 21:22-23; 21:27 • Lamb of GOD. John 1:29 • Lawgiver. Is.33:22 • Leader. Is.55:4 • Life. John 14:6 • Light. John 8:12 • Light, everlasting. Is. 60:20 • Light of the world. John 8:12 • Light to the Gentiles. Isaiah 42:6 • Light, true. John 1:9 • Living bread. John 6:51 • Living stone. 1 Pet. 2:4 • Lion of the tribe of Judah. Rev. 5:5 • Lord. Ro.1:3 • Lord of lords. Rev. 17:14; 19:16 • Lord of all. Acts 10:36 • Lord our righteousness. Jer.23:6 • Lord GOD Almighty. Rev. 15:3 • Lord from heaven. 1 Cor. 15:47 • Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ. 2 Peter 1:11; 2 Peter 3:18 • Lord Christ. Col. 3:24 • Lord Jesus. Acts 7:59; Col. 3:17; 1 Thes. 4:12 • Lord Jesus Christ. Acts 11:17; 16:31; 20:21; Ro.5:1; 5:11; 13:14 • Lord Jesus Christ our Saviour. Tit.1:4 • Lord of glory. Jam. 2:1 • Lord of Hosts. Is.44:6 • Lord, mighty in battle. Ps.24:8 • Lord of the dead and living. Ro. 14:9 • Lord of the Sabbath. Mark 2:28 • Lord over all. Ro.10:12 • Lord’s Christ. Luke 2:26 • Lord, strong and mighty. Ps. 24:8 • Lord, the, our righteousness. Jer. 23:6 • Lord, your holy one. Is. 43:15 • Lord, your redeemer. Is.43:14 • Man Christ Jesus. 1 Tim. 2:5 • Man of sorrows. Is. 53:3 • Master. Mat.23:8 • Mediator. 1 Tim. 2:5 • Messenger of the covenant. Mal. 3:1• Messiah. John 1:41 • Messiah the Prince. Daniel 9:25 • Mighty GOD. Is.9:6 • Mighty one of Israel. Is.30:29 • Minister of the sanctuary. Heb.8:2 • Morning star. Rev. 22:16 • Most holy. Dan. 9:24 • Most mighty. Ps.45:3 • Nazarene. Mat. 2:23 • Offspring of David. Rev. 22:16 • Only begotten. John 1:14 • Only begotten of the Father. John 1:14 • Only begotten Son. John 1:18 • Only wise GOD, our Saviour. Jude 1:25 • Passover. 1 Cor. 5:7 • Plant of renown. Eze.34:29 • Potentate. 1 Tim. 6:15 • Power of GOD. 1 Cor. 1:24 • Physician. Mat.9:12 • Precious corner stone. Is.28:16 • Priest. Heb. 7:17 • Prince. Acts 5:31 • Prince of life. Acts 3:15 • Prince of peace. Is.9:6 • Prince of the kings of the earth. Rev. 1:5 • Prophet. Deut. 18:15; 18:18; Mat. 21:11; Luke 24:19 • Propitiation. 1 John 2:2 • Rabbi. John 1:49 • Rabboni. John 20:16 • Ransom. 1 Tim. 2:6 • Redeemer. Is. 59:20 • Resurrection and life. John 11:25 • Redemption. 1 Cor. 1:30 • Righteous branch. Jer.23:5 • Righteous judge. 2 Tim. 4:8 • Righteous servant. Is.53:11 • Righteousness. 1 Cor. 1:30 • Rock. 1 Cor. 10:4 • Rock of offence. 1 Pet. 2:8 • Root of David. Rev. 5:5; 22:16 • Root of Jesse. Is.11:10 • Rose of Sharon. Song 2:1 • Ruler in Israel. Mic. 5:2 • Salvation. Luke 2:30 • Sanctification. 1 Cor. 1:30 • Sanctuary. Is. 8:1 • Saviour. Luke 2:11 • Saviour, Jesus Christ. 2 Tim. 1:10; Titus 2:13; 2 Peter 1:1 • Saviour of the body. Ep. 5:23 • Saviour of the world. 1 John 4:14 • Sceptre. Num. 24:17 • Second man. 1 Cor. 15:47 • Seed of David. 2 Tim. 2:8 • Seed of the woman. Gen. 3:15 • Servant. Is. 42:1 • Servant of rulers. Is.49:7 • Shepherd. Mark 14:27 • Shepherd and bishop of souls. 1 Pet. 2:25 • Shepherd, chief. 1 Pet. 5:4 • Shepherd, good. John 10:11 • Shepherd, great. Heb. 13:20 • Shepherd of Israel. Ps. 80:1 • Shiloh. Gen. 49:10 • Son of the Father. 2 John 1:3 • Son of the blessed. Mark 14:61 • Son of the highest. Luke 1:32 • Son of David. Mat.9:27 • Star. Num. 24:17 • Sun of righteousness. Mal. 4:2 • Stone of stumbling. 1 Pet. 2:8 • Sure foundation. Is. 28:16 • Teacher. John 3:2 • True GOD. 1 John 5:20 • True vine. John 15:1 • Truth. John 14:6 • Unspeakable gift. 2 Cor. 9:15 • Very Christ. Acts 9:22 • Vine. John 15:1 • Way. John 14:6 • Which is, which was, which is to come. Rev. 1:4 • Wisdom. Pro. 8:12 • Wisdom of GOD. 1 Cor. 1:24 • Witness. Is.55:4; Rev. 1: 5 • Wonderful. Is.9:6 • Word. Jn. 1:1 • Word of GOD. Rev. 19:13 • Word of life. 1 Jn.1:1.
CHRIST, the official title of our LORD, occurs over 565 times in the New Testament, indicating that He was anointed or consecrated to His great redemptive work as Prophet, Priest and King of His people. He is JESUS the CHRIST (Acts 17:3; 18:5; Mat. 22:42), the ANOINTED ONE. He is thus spoken of by Isaiah (Isa.61:1), and by Daniel (Dan. 9:24-26), who calls Him “Messiah the Prince.” This is He of whom Moses in the law and the prophets did write. The Old Testament Scripture is full of prophetic declarations regarding the Great Deliverer and the work He was to do. JESUS the CHRIST is JESUS the GREAT DELIVERER, the Anointed One, the Saviour of men. To believe that “JESUS is the CHRIST” is to believe that He is the ANOINTED, the MESSIAH of the prophets, the SAVIOUR sent of GOD, that He was what He claimed to be. Only believing this by faith can anyone be brought unto GOD. (1 John 5:1). CHRIST JESUS IS GOD.
Names, Titles, and Offices of the Trinity
74 names, titles, or offices of GOD the FATHER:
1. GOD (Gen. 1:1)
2. LORD (Gen. 2:4-22)
3. Most High GOD (Gen. 14:18-22)
4. The Almighty GOD (Gen. 17:1; Rev. 19:15)
5. The everlasting GOD (Gen. 21:33)
6. The GOD of Heaven (Gen. 24:3)
7. The GOD of Earth (Gen. 24:3; Rev. 11:4)
8. The Lord GOD of Heaven (Gen. 24:7)
9. GOD Almighty (Gen. 28:3; 43:14; 48:3)
10. The MIGHTY GOD (Gen. 49:24)
11. The GOD of Abraham (Ex. 3:6)
12. The GOD of Isaac (Ex. 3:6)
13. The GOD of Jacob (Ex. 3:6; 2Sam. 23:1)
14. I AM (Ex. 3:14)
15. GOD of the Hebrews (Ex. 5:3; 7:16)
16. JEHOVAH; LORD JEHOVAH (Ex. 6:3; Ps. 83:18; Isa. 12:2; 26:4)
17. GOD of Israel (Ex. 24:10; 34:23)
18. JEALOUS (Ex. 34:14)
19. GOD of the SPIRITs of all flesh (Num. 16:22; 27:16)
20. The GOD of GODs, Lord of lords (Dt. 10:17)
21. The eternal GOD (Dt. 33:27)
22. The living GOD (Josh. 3:10)
23. LORD GOD of Israel (Josh. 22:16; 24:2)
24. LORD GOD of GODs (Josh. 22:22)
25. STRENGTH of Israel (1 Sam. 15:29)
26. GOD of my rock (2 Sam. 22:3)
27. The Rock (2 Sam. 22:32; Ps. 18:2, 31)
28. GOD of the rock of my salvation (2 Sam. 22:47)
29. The Rock of Israel (2 Sam. 23:3)
30. The GOD of David (2 Chr. 34:3)
31. The RIGHTEOUS GOD (Ps. 7:9)
32. FORTRESS (Ps. 18:2; 91:2)
33. DELIVERER (Ps. 18:2; 91:3)
34. STRENGTH (Ps. 18:2)
35. BUCKLER (PS. 18:2; 91:4)
36. The HORN of salvation (Ps. 18:2)
37. HIGH TOWER (Ps. 18:2)
38. The GOD of my salvation (Ps. 18:46)
39. The GOD of glory (Ps. 29:3)
40. The GOD of truth (Ps. 31:5; Isa. 65:16)
41. JAH (Ps. 68:4)
42. The MOST HIGH (Ps. 91:1, 9)
43. The ALMIGHTY (Ps. 91:1)
44. Refuge (Ps. 91:2, 9)
45. HOLY ONE of Israel (Isa. 30:15)
46. The gloriouS LORD (ISA. 33:21)
47. THE Creator (Isa. 40:28)
48. Lord GOD of hosts (Isa. 22:5)
49. The LORD thy Savior and Redeemer (Isa. 60:16)
50. The MIGHTY ONE of Jacob (Isa. 60:16)
51. The LORD of hosts (Jer. 7:3, 21)
52. The true GOD (Jer. 10:10; Jn. 17:3)
53. The great and mighty GOD (Jer. 32:18)
54. The GOD of all flesh (Jer. 32:27)
55. ANCIENT OF DAYS (Dan. 7:9, 22)
56. The GOD of judgment (Mal. 2:17)
57. GOD of the living (Mk. 12:27)
58. The incorruptible GOD (Rom. 1:23)
59. GOD of patience and consolation (Rom. 15:5)
60. The GOD of hope (Rom. 15:13)
61. The GOD of peace (Rom. 16:20)
62. GOD of all comfort (2 Cor. 1:3)
63. GOD of love and peace (2 Cor. 13:11)
64. The living and true GOD (1 Th. 1:9)
65. The only wise GOD (1 Tim. 1:17)
66. The blessed and only POTENTATE, the KING of kings and LORD of Lords (1 Tim. 6:15-16)
67. The great GOD (Tit. 2:13; Rev. 19:17)
68. GOD the Judge of all (Heb. 12:23)
69. GOD the Father (1 Pet. 1:2; 2Jn. 1:3)
70. The GOD of all grace (1 Pet. 5:10)
71. The only Lord GOD (Jude 1:4)
72. Lord GOD Almighty (Rev. 4:8; 11:17; 15:3; 16:7; 21:22)
73. The Lord GOD omnipotent (Rev. 19:6)
74. The Lord GOD of the holy prophets (Rev. 22:6)
Names, titles, or offices of GOD the Son:
1. SEED of the woman (Gen. 3:15)
2. JEHOVAH (the LORD, Gen. 19:24; Ps. 110:1, 5)
3. SHILOH (Gen. 49:10)
4. The STAR out of Jacob (Num. 24:17)
5. PROPHET (Dt. 18:15; Lk. 24:19)
6. ROCK of salvation (Dt. 32:15)
7. DAYSMAN (Job. 9:33)
8. The ANOINTED (Ps. 2:2)
9. The SON (Ps. 2:12; Heb. 3:6)
10. SANCTUARY (Isa. 8:14)
11. STONE of stumbling (Isa. 8:14)
12. ROCK of offence (Isa. 8:14)
13. WONDERFUL (Isa. 9:6)
14. COUNSELLOR (Isa. 9:6)
15. The MIGHTY GOD (Isa. 9:6)
16. The EVERLASTING FATHER (Isa. 9:6)
17. The PRINCE of Peace (Isa. 9:6)
18. ROD out of Jesse (Isa. 11:1)
19. The BRANCH (Isa. 11:1; Zech. 3:8; 6:12)
20. An ENSIGN of the people (Isa. 11:10)
21. My Servant (Isa. 42:1; Mt. 12:18)
22. My elect (Isa. 42:1)
23. Polished shaft (Isa. 49:2)
24. The REDEEMER (Isa. 59:20)
25. The angel of His Presence (Isa. 63:9)
26. The LORD our righteousness (Jer. 23:6)
27. Plant of renown (Eze. 34:29)
28. MESSIAH (Dan. 9:25; Jn. 4:25)
29. The JUDGE of Israel (Mic. 5:1)
30. The DESIRE of all nations (Hag. 2:7)
31. The MAN that is My fellow (Zec. 13:7)
32. Refiner and purifier (Mal. 3:3)
33. SUN of righteousness (Mal. 4:2)
34. JESUS CHRIST (Mt. 1:1)
35. The SON of Abraham (Mt. 1:1)
36. The SON of David (Mt. 1:1; 9:27)
37. CHRIST (Mt. 1:17; 2:4)
38. JESUS (Mt. 1:21)
39. EMMANUEL (GOD with us, Mt. 1:23)
40. KING of the Jews (Mt. 2:2; 21:5)
41. GOVERNOR (Mt. 2:6)
42. NAZARENE (Mt. 2:23)
43. The SON of GOD (Mt. 4:3)
44. MASTER (Mt. 8:19)
45. The SON of man (Mt. 8:20)
46. PHYSICIAN (Mt. 9:12)
47. The BRIDEGROOM (Mt. 9:15)
48. The FRIEND of sinners (Mt. 11:19)
49. The BELOVED (Mt. 12:18; Eph. 1:6)
50. The SOWER of the seed (Mt. 13:3)
51. The SON of the Highest (Lk. 1:32)
52. The HORN of salvation (Lk. 1:69)
53. The DAYSPRING (LK. 1:78)
54. CHRIST THE Lord (Lk. 2:11)
55. SAVIOUR (Lk. 2:11)
56. The CONSOLATION of Israel (Lk. 2:25)
57. SALVATION (Lk. 2:30)
58. JESUS of Nazareth (Lk. 4:34)
59. HOLY ONE of GOD (Lk. 4:34)
60. The WORD (Jn. 1:1-2)
61. GOD (Jn. 1:1-3; 20:28; Heb. 1:8)
62. The TRUE LIGHT (Jn. 1:9)
63. Only begotten SON (Jn. 1:18; 3:16)
64. Lamb of GOD (Jn. 1:29; Rev. 5:6)
65. The KING of Israel (Jn. 1:49)
66. TEACHER (Jn. 3:2)
67. Gift of GOD (Jn. 4:10)
68. SAVIOUR of the world (Jn. 4:42)
69. The BREAD of GOD (Jn. 6:33)
70. The BREAD of Life (Jn. 6:35,48-51)
71. LIGHT of the world (Jn. 8:12)
72. DOOR of the sheep (Jn. 10:7)
73. The GOOD SHEPHERD (Jn. 10:11)
74. The WAY, THE TRUTH, THE LIFE (Jn. 14:6)
75. The VINE (Jn. 15:1-8)
76. LORD and GOD (Jn. 20:28)
77. HOLY ONE and Just (Acts 3:14)
78. Thy HOLY CHILD JESUS (Acts 4:27)
79. A PRINCE and a SAVIOUR (Acts 5:31)
80. LORD of all (Acts 10:36)
81. A PROPITIATION (Rom. 3:25; 1Jn. 2:2)
82. JESUS CHRIST our LORD (Rom. 6:23)
83. The DELIVERER (Rom. 11:26)
84. CHRIST JESUS (1 Cor. 1:2; 1 Tim. 2:5)
85. The power of GOD (1 Cor. 1:24)
86. The wisdom of GOD (1 Cor. 1:24)
87. Sanctification (1 Cor. 1:30)
88. LORD of glory (1 Cor. 2:8)
89. Our PASSOVER (1 Cor. 5:7)
90. SPIRITUAL ROCK (1 Cor. 10:4)
91. CHRIST the firstfruits (1 Cor. 15:23)
92. The LAST ADAM (1 Cor. 15:45)
93. The SECOND MAN (Adam, 1 Cor. 15:45-47)
94. Image of GOD (2 Cor. 4:4)
95. SEED of Abraham (Gal. 3:29)
96. The BELOVED (Eph. 1:6)
97. CHIEF CORNER STONE (Eph. 2:20)
98. HEAD of the church (Col. 1:18)
99. FIRSTBORN from the dead (Col. 1:18)
100. CHRIST JESUS our LORD (1 Tim. 1:12)
101. MEDIATOR (1 Tim. 2:4-5)
102. The man CHRIST JESUS (1 Tim. 2:5)
103. RANSOM for all (1 Tim. 2:6)
104. SEED of David (2 Tim. 2:8)
105. Lord JESUS CHRIST our SAVIOUR (Tit. 1:4)
106. Brightness of His glory (Heb. 1:3)
107. EXPRESS IMAGE of His person (Heb. 1:3)
108. UPHOLDER of all things (Heb. 1:3)
109. CAPTAIN of salvation (Heb. 2:10)
110. The APOSTLE and HIGH PRIEST of our profession (Heb. 3:1)
111. FORERUNNER (Heb. 6:20)
112. MINISTER of the sanctuary (Heb. 8:2)
113. Testator (Heb. 9:16-17)
114. AUTHOR and FINISHER of faith (Heb. 12:2)
115. GREAT SHEPHERD of the sheep (Heb. 13:20)
116. SHEPHERD and BISHOP of souls (1Pet. 2:25)
117. CHIEF SHEPHERD (1Pet. 5:4)
118. LORD and SAVIOUR JESUS CHRIST (2Pet. 1:11)
119. DAY STAR (2 Pet. 1:19)
120. ADVOCATE (1 Jn. 2:1)
121. JESUS CHRIST the righteous (1 Jn. 2:1)
122. ETERNAL LIFE (1 Jn. 5:20)
123. FAITHFUL WITNESS (Rev. 1:5)
124. FIRST BEGOTTEN of the dead (Rev. 1:5)
125. PRINCE of the kings of earth (Rev. 1:5)
126. ALPHA and OMEGA (Rev. 1:8; 21:6; 22:13)
127. The BEGINNING and ENDING (Rev. 1:8)
128. The FIRST and the LAST (Rev. 2:8)
129. MORNING STAR (Rev. 2:28)
130. The AMEN (Rev. 3:14)
131. FAITHFUL and TRUE WITNESS (Rev. 3:14)
132. HE who created all things through the FATHER (Eph. 3:9; Col. 1:15-18; Rev. 3:14)
133. LION of the tribe of Judah (Rev. 5:5)
134. The ROOT of David (Rev. 5:5)
135. The Word of GOD (Rev. 19:13)
136. KING of kings, LORD OF LORDS (REV. 19:16)
137. ROOT AND offspring of David (Rev. 22:16)
138. Bright and MORNING STAR (Rev. 22:16)
Names, titles, or offices of GOD the Holy SPIRIT:
1. SPIRIT of GOD (30 Times in KJV)
2. SPIRIT of wisdom (Ex. 28:3; Dt. 34:9; Isa. 11:2; Eph. 1:17)
3. The SPIRIT (over 100 times, Num. 11:17, 25; Gal. 6:8; Jn.1:33; 7:39; 14:17; 15:26; 16:15)
4. His SPIRIT (Num. 11:29; Ps. 106:33; Isa. 48:16; Rom. 8:11; 1Cor. 2:10).
5. Thy SPIRIT (2 Ki. 2:9; Ps. 104:30; 139:7)
6. My SPIRIT (Isa. 42:1; Acts 2:17-18)
7. The SPIRIT of the Lord (30 times, Judg. 3:10; 6:34; 15:14; Lk. 4:18; 2 Cor. 3:17-18)
8. The SPIRIT of Elijah (2 Ki. 2:15; Lk. 1:17)
9. Thy good SPIRIT (Neh. 9:20)
10. Thy free SPIRIT (Ps. 51:12)
11. The SPIRIT of judgment (Isa. 4:4; 28:6)
12. The SPIRIT of burning (Isa. 4:4)
13. SPIRIT of wisdom and understanding (Isa. 11:2)
14. SPIRIT of counsel and might (Isa. 11:2)
15. SPIRIT of knowledge and fear of the Lord (Isa. 11:2; 2 Tim. 1:7)
16. Excellent SPIRIT (Dan. 5:12; 6:3)
17. SPIRIT of grace and supplications (Zech. 12:10; Heb. 10:29)
18. The HOLY GHOST (over 80 times, Mt. 1:18-20; 3:11; 12:31-32; 28:19; 1 Jn. 5:7)
19. The SPIRIT of your Father (Mt. 10:20)
20. The power of the Highest (Lk. 1:35)
21. The HOLY SPIRIT (only once, Lk. 11:13)
22. The COMFORTER (Jn. 14:16, 26; 15:26)
23. The SPIRIT of truth (Jn. 14:17; 15:26; 16:13; 1 Jn. 4:6; 5:6)
24. SPIRIT of holiness (Rom. 1:4)
25. SPIRIT of life (Rom. 8:2)
26. SPIRIT of Christ (Rom. 8:9; 1 Pet. 1:11)
27. SPIRIT of adoption (Rom. 8:15)
28. SPIRIT of the living GOD (2 Cor. 3:3)
29. The SPIRIT of His Son (Gal. 4:6)
30. HOLY SPIRIT of promise (Eph. 1:13)
31. SPIRIT of wisdom and revelation (Eph. 1:17)
32. HOLY SPIRIT of GOD (Eph. 4:30)
33. SPIRIT of Jesus Christ (Php. 1:19)
34. The eternal SPIRIT (Heb. 9:14)
35. The SPIRIT of glory (1 Pet. 4:14)
36. The SPIRIT of prophecy (Rev. 19:10)
The Names, titles and offices of the Father, the Son, and the Holy SPIRIT reveal the character, the work and separate jobs in the plan of the Almighty and Eternal GOD. GOD the Father’s role is headship; GOD the SON holds that of Creation and redemption; and GOD the HOLY SPIRIT is the direct power of any and all operations. All three persons of the Triune GOD work in perfect harmony in ALL things: the Creation, redemption and the eternal good of all people.
Messianic Psalms: Ps. 2:1-12; Ps. 16:7-11; Ps. 22:1-21; Ps. 27:12; Ps. 35:11; Ps. 34:20; Ps. 40:6-8; Ps. 41:0; Ps. 45:1-7; Ps. 67:1-7; Ps. 68:28 to 69:36; Ps. 72:1-19; Ps.78:2, 18,24; Ps. 89:3-4, 35-36; Ps. 93:1-5; Ps. 96:1 to 99:9; Ps. 109:3-5,7-8; Ps. 110:1-7; Ps. 118:19-29.
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