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Gospel of Luke Chapter 3

Theme: Ministry of John the Baptist; baptism of Jesus; genealogy of Mary

Luke, with a true historian's approach, dates the ministry of John the Baptist with secular history. He places the emphasis upon John's message of repentance as the condition for the Coming of the Messiah. From the Mosaic system of washing in water, which was a common custom of immersion in that day, John the Baptist baptized those who came to him as a preparation and a moral renovation, for the Coming of Christ. Christ Jesus would baptize by the Holy Spirit, which was a genuine alteration.

The design of John's ministry was, to get the people AWAY from their sins, and TO their Saviour. He came preaching, the sign or ceremony was washing with water. John preached the NEED of repentance and the remission of sins.  The baptism of water was an outward sign of that inward cleansing and renewal of the heart, which are the effects of true repentance, as well as a profession of it. Here is the fulfilling of the Scriptures, in the ministry of John. Isaiah 40:3  The voice of him that crieth in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the LORD, make straight in the desert a highway for our God. (KJV) 

John taught the people how the way is made for the Gospel to enter into the heart; by removing arrogant, high and sinful selfish thoughts, and bringing them into obedience to Christ, by removing all that hinders us in the way of Christ Jesus and His grace . . . only then can preparation be made to welcome the salvation of Almighty God.

Here are some warnings and exhortations which John gave:

  • #1. The guilty, corrupt race of mankind is become a generation of vipers; hateful to God, and hating one another. There is NO way of fleeing from the wrath to come, except by repentance; and the changing of our ways and the change of our mind must be shown.
  • #2. If we are not really holy, both in heart and life, our profession of religion and relation to God and His church, will be of no use to us at all. Our destruction shall be all to more sore, IF we do not bring forth fruits fit for repentance.
  • #3. Those that profess and promise repentance, MUST show it by their actions and their words. The Gospel requires mercy, NOT sacrifice; and its plan is, to involve us to do all the good we can, and to be just to ALL men.
  • #4. Those who received wealth by unjust gain, must restore that which is gained by wrong.
  • #5. Do violence to no man.
  • #6. Neither accuse any falsely.
  • #7. Be content with your wages. Men should be cautioned against the temptations of their employments.

Since NONE can or will accept Christ's salvation without TRUE repentance, the evidence and effects of this repentance are here marked out.

The genealogy in this chapter is that of Mary, which reveals two facts: #1. It goes back to Adam, the father of the human family. Jesus was absolutely human. Matthew’s Gospel presents Jesus as King, and traces the genealogy back only as to Abraham. Luke, in presenting Jesus as Man, goes all the way back to Adam. #2. Mary was descended from David through another than Solomon . . . David's son Nathan (1 Chron.3:5).

Ministry Of John The Baptist (Luke 3:1-20)

This chapter contains much detail; Luke is a one for accuracy.

Luke 3:1  Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar, Pontius Pilate being governor of Judaea, and Herod being tetrarch of Galilee, and his brother Philip tetrarch of Ituraea and of the region of Trachonitis, and Lysanias the tetrarch of Abilene, (KJV)

Now in the fifteenth year of the reign of Tiberius Caesar . . . Emperor of Rome, and the third of the Caesars; Julius was the first, and Augustus the second, in whose time Christ was born, and this Tiberius the third; was the son of Livia, the wife of Augustus, but not by him; but was adopted by him, into the empire: his name was Claudius Tiberius Nero, and for his self-indulgence was called, Caldius Biberius Mero; the whole of his reign was over twenty two years, for he died in the twenty third year of his reign; and in the fifteenth of his reign, John the Baptist began to preach, Christ was baptized, and began to preach also; so that this year may be truly called, "the acceptable year of the Lord" (Isa.61:2; Lk.4:19).
Pontius Pilate being governor of Judea . . . under the Emperor Tiberius, in whose reign the Jewish chronologer places him,
And Herod being tetrarch of Galilee . . . this was Herod Antipas, the son of Herod the great, and brother of Archelaus; he is called also a tetrarch, and places him under Tiberius Caesar: he is sometimes called a king, and so he is by the Ethiopic version called "king of Galilee". Besides Galilee, he had also Peraea, or the country beyond Jordan, as Josephus says, and which seems here to be included in Galilee. (Mat.14:1).
And his brother Philip tetrarch of Iturea, and of the region of Trachonitis . . . the nation of the Iturea belongs to Syria; This Philip, who as before by Josephus, is said to be in agreement with Luke, to be tetrarch of Trachonitis, was brother to Herod Antipas, by the father's, but not by the mother's side. Philip was born of Cleopatra, of Jerusalem, and Herod of Malthace, a Samaritan he died in the twentieth year of Tiberius, five years after this.
And Lysanias the tetrarch of Abilene . . . mention is made of Abila by Pliny, as in Coele Syria, from whence this tetrarch might have its name. When Tiberius Caesar reigned at Rome, and Pontius Pilate governed in Judea, and Herod Antipas in Galilee, and Philip his brother in Iturea and Trachonitis, and Lysanias in Abilene, John the Baptist began to preach and baptize; to fix the area of whose ministry and baptism.

Luke 3:2 Annas and Caiaphas being the high priests, the word of God came unto John the son of Zacharias in the wilderness. (KJV)

Annas and Caiaphas being the high priests . . . why were there two high priests? Two high priests reveals the power of Rome over the religion of Jerusalem in that day. Annas was the power behind the throne, but Caiaphas was the one Rome put out in front. The normal practice for John the Baptist would have been to serve in the Temple just as his father had. He should have been a leader in the Temple, instead he went into the wilderness and renounced his priesthood. He did not want to serve in a corrupt system, and so he became a prophet. John was a priest, but he became a prophet.
John the Baptist is one of those remarkable characters who appears from time to time. He reminded the people of Elijah because of certain similarities in their methods. He also reminded the people of One who was one day going to appear . . . the Messiah. John the Baptist was a very contradictory person. He truly was, quite an unusual man. Luke has told us of his miraculous birth, attended by a visit from the angel Gabriel. His entire boyhood was passed over, nothing is said of his young years. The next event in his life was the beginning of his ministry. He was a priest, a prophet and a preacher. He was a priest by birth because he was the son of Zacharias, but he was called by God to be a prophet.
The word of God came to John the son of Zachariah . . . John preached the baptism of repentance. He is the last of the prophets. This remarkable man actually was an Old Testament character who boldly walks right into the New Testament. He is a picturesque, quaint, unshaven, and shaggy looking man, wearing coarse camel hair clothes. He is different in his dress, his diet and his looks. He will receive the same reception that many prophets received  . . . he, like they, will be put to death.
The most unwelcome message, then and now, is the voice of the prophet. The world will NOT receive a man who contradicts its viewpoint of life. If you want to be popular, you do NOT mention the Name of Jesus, do NOT mention the Gospel, do NOT mention the wrath of God, do NOT mention the judgment that is sure to come on all those who refuse to believe God and accept His only begotten Son!
This is also true of preachers today; they must bring what the crowd wants to hear!  My friend, the world does NOT want to hear the voice of God, especially when that voice speaks of judgment that is sure to come. So many popular preachers are interested only in riches. They will NOT preach the Truth of God’s Holy Word because it would OFFEND the people. Times have not changed much in that respect!  Isaiah 30:10-11  Which say to the seers, See not; and to the prophets, Prophesy not unto us right things, speak unto us smooth things, prophesy deceits: 11 Get you out of the way, turn aside out of the path, cause the Holy One of Israel to cease from before us. (KJV) . . . John's message was very strong. He had the boldness to speak the Truth! His message: REPENT . . . or else! That message of Truth is very rarely spoken today!
In the wilderness . . . of Judea; where he had been brought up and lived, and from where he came, preaching. He had lived a solitary life, and had not learned his doctrine from men, but instead, had his mission, ministry and baptism from Heaven.

Luke 3:3 And he came into all the country about Jordan, preaching the baptism of repentance for the remission of sins; (KJV)

And he came into all the country about Jordan . . . John came out of the wilderness of Judea, where he first began his ministry, to some parts of the country that bordered the Jordan, and was near to it, on either side the river; sometimes he was at Bethabara, sometimes at Aenon, near Salim. He went around the country that encompassed Jordan, in places nearby to it, and all the country round about came to him.  (Mat.3:5).
Preaching the baptism of repentance for the remission of sins . . . this was the work and office of John, as indicated by Elias, in Malachi 4:5-6. John came into this land, preaching this doctrine. (Mk.1:4).

Luke 3:4 As it is written in the book of the words of Esaias the prophet, saying, The voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord, make his paths straight. (KJV)

As it is written in the book of the words of Esaias the prophet . . . Isaiah 40:3 The voice of him that crieth in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the LORD, make straight in the desert a highway for our God. (KJV)
Saying, the voice of one crying in the wilderness, Prepare ye the way of the Lord make his paths straight . . . see (Mat.3:3).

Luke 3:5  Every valley shall be filled, and every mountain and hill shall be brought low; and the crooked shall be made straight, and the rough ways shall be made smooth; (KJV)

Every valley shall be filled . . . Luke brings more out of the same prophecy, as relating to the times of John the Baptist and the Messiah, than Matthew and Mark do. The prophet says: Isaiah 40:4  Every valley shall be exalted, and every mountain and hill shall be made low: and the crooked shall be made straight, and the rough places plain: (KJV) . . . Which is done, by filling it up; the symbol being, of preparing and clearing the way for the Coming of the Messiah, done by the ministry of John.
And every mountain and hill shall be brought low . . . all those people who think they are so great in this world, and are well pleased with their own abilities, boasting of their righteousness, trusting in themselves, and looking with scorn and contempt on others; their loftiness shall be brought down, and their arrogance made low; and ONLY the Messiah alone, in His Person, grace and righteousness, shall be exalted!  
And the crooked shall be made straight . . . those who are of a crooked spirit, walking in criminal and crooked ways, these workers of iniquity (Lk.13:27), shall have new spirits given them, and be directed to right ways, and be led in the paths of righteousness and truth.  
And the rough ways shall be made smooth . . . those of bad tempers, compared to lions and bears, shall become quiet and peaceable, smooth and easy; and whatever oppositions were in the minds of men concerning the Messiah, the end of His Coming, and the nature of His kingdom; whatever impediments were in the way of embracing Him, should now be removed from many persons.  
In John's day, before a king would take a trip, messengers would tell those he was planning to visit to prepare the roads for him. In this way, John told his listeners to make their lives ready because the Lord was coming, and they should be ready. Repent.   

Luke 3:6  And all flesh shall see the salvation of God. (KJV)

And all flesh shall see the salvation of God . . . the salvation of God is meant, the Messiah, the Lord Jesus Christ, the Saviour of God's appointing and sending; and who is the Author of that salvation which God resolved on, and approved of. John the Baptist gave instructions to several kinds of people. All those that profess and promise repentance, MUST show it by reformation, according to their lifestyles. The Gospel requires mercy, not sacrifice; and its plan is, to engage us to do all the good we can, and to be just to all men. The same principle that leads men to forego unjust gain, leads them to restore that which is gained by wrong. John tells the soldiers their duty. Men should be cautioned against the temptations of their employments. These answers declared the present duty of the inquirers, and at once formed a test of their sincerity. Since NONE can or will accept Christ's salvation without true repentance, the evidence and effects of this repentance are set out for us here.

Luke 3:7  Then said he to the multitude that came forth to be baptized of him, O generation of vipers, who hath warned you to flee from the wrath to come? (KJV)

Then said he to the multitude . . . John said to the multitude to whom he spoke, the following words, which were many from the Pharisees and Sadducees, as appears from (Mat.3:7).
That came forth to be baptized of him . . . who came out of their houses, towns and cities round about, to the place where John was; to hear and see what he was all about. They wanted to be admitted to his baptism, they came with a view of being baptized, were it thought fit and proper they should: but John refused them, saying to them,
O generation of vipers, who hath warned you to flee from the wrath to come? . . . see: (Mat.3:7). I wonder how long a preacher would last in any church today, if he began his Sunday sermon by saying, "O generation of vipers"? I do not think he would be in the pulpit the following Sunday, but in fact, I think they might even grab him literally and throw him out right then. (Isa.30:10).

Luke 3:8  Bring forth therefore fruits worthy of repentance, and begin not to say within yourselves, We have Abraham to our father: for I say unto you, That God is able of these stones to raise up children unto Abraham. (KJV)

Bring forth therefore fruits worthy of repentance . . . or "fit" for it, such as will clearly show it to be true and genuine. (Mat.3:8). 
We have Abraham to our father, for I say unto you, God is able of these stones to raise up children unto Abraham . . . this need not be thought strange, when the creation of Adam out of the dust of the Earth (Gen.2:7), and the production of such a numerous offspring, as the Israelites were, from Abraham and Sarah, when past all hope of children, and are meant by the rock and pit in (Isa.51:1-2) are considered. (Mat.3:9).

Luke 3:9  And now also the axe is laid unto the root of the trees: every tree therefore which bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire. (KJV)

And now also the axe is laid unto the root of the trees . . . not only to Jesse's family, which as a root in a dry ground (Isa.11:10), and to Jerusalem, the metropolis of the nation; but to the root of the vain boasting of every Jew; their descent from Abraham, the covenant made with him, their religious state and civil society, all which would quickly be at an end: the Romans were now among them, the axe in God's hand; by means of whom, utter ruin and destruction would be brought upon their nation, city, and temple.
Every tree therefore which bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn down, and cast into the fire . . . see (Mat.3:10).


Luke 3:10  And the people asked him, saying, What shall we do then? (KJV)

And the people asked him . . . not the same as in verse 7,  the Sadducees and Pharisees, for they did not seem at all affected with the ministry of John; but rather were very displeased with him, and turned their backs on him, and rejected him and his baptism, but the common people were interested to hear John speak of wrath to come, and of repentance, and fruits worthy of it, were filled with concern about these things, and inquired,
Saying, what shall we do? . . . the first step to salvation! Realizing you are a sinner! The people wanted to know how to escape the wrath and vengeance of God which was coming on the nation, and also eternal ruin and destruction.

Luke 3:11  He answereth and saith unto them, He that hath two coats, let him impart to him that hath none; and he that hath meat, let him do likewise. (KJV)

He answereth and saith unto them . . . John tells them what they should do; which does NOT put them upon ceremonial observances, or severe exercises of religion, or even the duties of the first table of the law, but instead upon acts of compassion and kindness to fellow creatures in distress; and are what may be called love of our neighbor, and which involves the love of God, and so the whole law, for the one cannot be rightly done without the other.
He that hath two coats, let him impart to him that hath none . . .not both of them, but one of them: a man is not obligated to go naked himself, in order to clothe another. John was telling Israel in plain, understandable language that they were living for "self" and not attempting to share what they had with others.
And he that hath meat, let him do likewise . . . anyone that has more than enough for himself and family, let him give it freely and cheerfully to the poor and needy, for with such sacrifices God is well pleased. When such acts of kindness are done in faith, from a source of love, and with a view to the glory of God, they are the fruits of grace, and such as are meet (fit) for repentance, and show it to be genuine. John gives examples in these two things, food and clothing, as containing the necessaries of human life, and including everything, by which one may be of service to another.


Luke 3:12  Then came also publicans to be baptized, and said unto him, Master, what shall we do? (KJV)

Then came also publicans to be baptized . . . the tax collectors being convinced under John's ministry of the evils of their past life, and wanted to be admitted to baptism, to which they understood repentance, and fruits fit for the same, were pre-requisite. These came to John,
And said unto him, master, what shall we do? . . . we have been very wicked persons, what shall we do to escape divine vengeance? What can we do that we may be admitted to the ordinance of baptism, which requires, as previous to it, a true and hearty repentance? See: (Mat.5:46; 9:9-11).


Luke 3:13 And he said unto them, Exact no more than that which is appointed you. (KJV)

And he said unto them, Exact no more than that which is appointed you . . . not advising them to quit their jobs, as if it was unlawful to collect taxes, but by directing them to do their job right, and not cheat anyone.
Exact no more than that which is appointed you . . . it seems there were two kinds of publicans; there were some that asked for more than what they were ordered, collecting what they could themselves . . . these were hated by the people, and were considered with the worst of sinners, as thieves and robbers; but there were others, who behaved according to the orders of the government.  

Luke 3:14 And the soldiers likewise demanded of him, saying, And what shall we do? And he said unto them, Do violence to no man, neither accuse any falsely; and be content with your wages. (KJV)

And the soldiers likewise demanded of him, saying, And what shall we do? . . . to avoid the threatened ruin, and to prove the truth of their repentance, that so they may be admitted to the holy ordinance of baptism; John replied,
Do violence to no man . . .  put no man in fear, or "shake" him or put him into bodily fear, by threatening, bullying and harassing him, and drawing swords upon him, which was usual, even in the least offence, for such persons to do.
Neither accuse any falsely . . . it is very likely that when they wished the property of others and could not obtain it by violence, or when there was no pretext for violence, they often attempted the same-thing in another way, and falsely accused the persons of crime.  
And be content with your wages . . . this means not only the money which was paid them, but also their rations or daily allowance of food. They were to show that their repentance was sincere; that it produced a real reformation of life, no partial repentance would be accepted. Every profession of repentance which is not revealed by a change of life is hypocrisy.

Luke 3:15 And as the people were in expectation, and all men mused in their hearts of John, whether he were the Christ, or not; (KJV)

And as the people were in expectation, of the coming of the Messiah . . . Daniel's seventy weeks being now accomplished, the scepter being departed from Judah, and the Romans having the government in their hands, from whom they hoped for a deliverance by Christ.
And all men mused in their hearts of John; whether he were the Christ, or no . . . about which they had many thoughts and debates: some doubting it, others ready to believe it, from his extraordinary birth, the remarkable holiness of his life, the power and effectiveness of his doctrine, the new ordinance he administered, the restoration of religion by him, the boldness and freedom he took in criticizing the vices of men, and the suitable answers he gave to the questions put to him. And that the Messiah was born, although He was not, as yet, made manifest, they might determine, not only from the fulfilment of several prophecies, but from the song of Zacharias, the declaration of Simeon and Anna in the temple, and of the wise men that came from the east; and John appearing in such an unusual manner, they were ready to hope that he was the person; although they did not consider that he was of the tribe of Levi, and not of Judah; from which latter the Messiah was to spring.


Luke 3:16  John answered, saying unto them all, I indeed baptize you with water; but one mightier than I cometh, the latchet of whose shoes I am not worthy to unloose: he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost and with fire: (KJV)

John answered, saying unto them all, I indeed baptize you with water; but one mightier than I cometh, the latchet of whose shoes I am not worthy to unloose: he shall baptize you with the Holy Ghost and with fire . . . John's baptism with water symbolized the washing away of sins. His baptism followed his message of repentance and reformation. Jesus' baptism with the Holy Ghost equips one with power to do God's will. The baptism with the Holy Spirit was first given at Pentecost (Acts 2) when the Holy Spirit came upon believers in the form of tongues of fire, empowering them to proclaim Jesus' resurrection in many languages. The baptism with fire symbolizes the work of the Holy Spirit in bringing God's judgment on those who refuse to repent. (Mat.3:11).

Luke 3:17 Whose fan is in his hand, and he will throughly purge his floor, and will gather the wheat into his garner; but the chaff he will burn with fire unquenchable. (KJV)

Whose fan is in his hand, and he will throughly purge his floor, and will gather the wheat into his garner; but the chaff he will burn with fire unquenchable . . . John makes it very clear that his message is NOT the final one. He is preparing the Way for the One to come.
John baptized with water. Jesus has been baptizing with the Holy Spirit for over nineteen hundred years. He shall also baptize with fire at His second coming. Fire speaks of judgment.
Some think that this is a reference to the Day of Pentecost when the Holy Spirit came, and there appeared unto them cloven tongues like as of fire, that sat upon each of them (Acts 2:3). It was NOT fire, it looked like fire. The coming of the Holy Spirit at Pentecost was NOT the fulfillment of the baptism of fire. That baptism of fire is still out in the future . . . it will take place at the Second Coming of the Lord (Mat. 25:41,46; Rev.20:11-15).
John warned of imminent and looming judgment by comparing those who refuse to live for God to chaff, the useless outer husk of the grain, which shall be burned with fire unquenchable (Mat.3:12; Lk.3:17). But John compared those who repent and reform their lives to the nourishing and sustaining wheat itself, which shall gather the wheat into his garner. In those days, the winnowing fork or pitchfork was used to toss wheat so that the kernels would separate from the husks. All those who refuse to believe God will be discarded because they have no value in furthering God's work, but those who repent and believe, are of great value in God's eyes because they are beginning a new life of productive service for Him. (Mat.3:12).


Luke 3:18  And many other things in his exhortation preached he unto the people. (KJV)

And many other things in his exhortation preached he unto the people . . . concerning to the Person and office of the Messiah, to the nature of His Kingdom, the Gospel dispensation, and to faith in Him; for he pointed Jesus out to the people, and warned them to believe in Him, and he expressed much joy and pleasure on the hearing of his success and increase (Jn.1:29,33,34. 3:27-36). His "exhortation", or while he was warning, he also comforted the people as well, by publishing the Gospel, the good news, and glad tidings of the Messiah's having come, and of life, righteousness and salvation by Him.


Luke 3:19  But Herod the tetrarch, being reproved by him for Herodias his brother Philip's wife, and for all the evils which Herod had done, (KJV)

But Herod the tetrarch, being reproved by him for Herodias his brother Philip's wife, and for all the evils which Herod had done . . . See: (Mat.14:1-13; Mk.6:17)                

Luke 3:20 Added yet this above all, that he shut up John in prison. (KJV)

Added yet this above all, that he shut up John in prison . . . Matthew 14:3  For Herod had laid hold on John, and bound him, and put him in prison for Herodias' sake, his brother Philip's wife. (KJV) . . . John had reproved Herod publicly because he had married Herodias, the wife of his brother Philip. Herodias had been furious over this and demanded that John be put in prison. Herod fulfilled her desire and had John arrested and imprisoned.
Verses 19 and 20 amply confirm to us, that we are not to expect to find the several Passages in the Gospel concerning John the Baptist set down according to the order of time in which they happened. Luke sets down the imprisonment of John before the baptism of Christ, mentioned in the two next verses, which we know could not be as to the order of time, our Saviour being baptized by John. John was so well known, that Herod himself heard him, did many things, and heard him gladly (Mk.6:20). But John was a TRUE man of God, a faithful preacher, and had to rebuke Herod for his wicked actions, especially for his incestuous taking of his brother Philip's wife, for Phillip was alive when Herod took her. Historians tell us, that John was imprisoned in the sixteenth year of Tiberius Caesar, and Philip did not die until the twentieth.


Luke 3:21  Now when all the people were baptized, it came to pass, that Jesus also being baptized, and praying, the heaven was opened, (KJV)

Now when all the people were baptized . . . that came from several parts to John for this baptism, as many as he judged to be proper subjects of that ordinance, as many of the common people, publicans, soldiers.
It came to pass that Jesus also being baptized . . . of John in Jordan, He coming from Galilee there because of it.
And praying . . . after He was baptized, for the coming down of the Spirit upon Him, as Man, to anoint, and qualify Him for His office He was now about to enter publicly, and for a testimony from Heaven, that He was the Son of God, and TRUE Messiah.  
The heaven was opened . . . See: (Mat.3:16).


Luke 3:22 And the Holy Ghost descended in a bodily shape like a dove upon him, and a voice came from heaven, which said, Thou art my beloved Son; in thee I am well pleased. (KJV)

And the Holy Ghost descended in a bodily shape . . . in a physical form, in a visible manner, and was seen with bodily eyes, at least by John the administrator; to whom this was a signal of his being the Messiah, and a fresh confirmation of it.
Like a dove upon him . . . in the form of a dove, or whatever it was, descended and hovered on Him as a dove does.
And a voice came from heaven . . . at the same time the Holy Ghost came down upon Him, a Voice from Heaven said,
Thou art my beloved Son, in thee I am well pleased . . . the voice of God the Father; and the whole of this was an answer of Christ's prayer. (Mat.3:16-17; Mk.1:11).


Luke 3:23 And Jesus himself began to be about thirty years of age, being (as was supposed) the son of Joseph, which was the son of Heli, (KJV)

And Jesus himself began to be about thirty years of age . . . Jesus, when he was baptized and began His public ministry, was about thirty years old: an age at which the priests, under the law, who were typical of Christ, entered on their work (Num.4:23; 1 Chron.23:3).
Being, as was supposed, the son of Joseph . . . who had espoused Mary (was engaged to Mary), before she was with child of the Holy Ghost, and afterwards took her to be his wife, and brought up her Son; so that it was thought that Jesus was the Son of Joseph.
Which was the son of Eli . . . meaning, not that Joseph was the son of Eli; for he was the son of Jacob, according to (Mat.1:16), but Jesus was the son of Eli; and which must be understood, and carried through the whole genealogy, as thus; Jesus the son of Matthat, Jesus the son of Levi, Jesus the son of Melchi till you come to Jesus the son of Adam, and Jesus the Son of God; although it is true indeed that Joseph was the son of Eli, having married his daughter; Mary was the daughter of Eli: and so the Jews speak of one Mary, the daughter of Eli, by whom they seem to design the mother of our Lord.


Luke 3:24 Which was the son of Matthat, which was the son of Levi, which was the son of Melchi, which was the son of Janna, which was the son of Joseph, (KJV)

See: (Mat.1:1-16).

Luke 3:25  Which was the son of Mattathias, which was the son of Amos, which was the son of Naum, which was the son of Esli, which was the son of Nagge, (KJV)

Which was the son of Mattathias . . . surnamed Siloah, by the same Philo, who governed ten years:
Which was the son of Amos . . . whose surname, according to the same author, was Sirag; or, as some, Syrach, or Shyrach, who governed fourteen years:
Which was the son of Naum . . . who was called Mesalut, or Maslot, who governed seven years:
Which was the son of Esli . . . or Eli, surnamed Haggai, who governed eight years;
Which was the son of Nagge . . . with Philo he is called Nagid Artasat, or Artaxat, and said to govern ten years.


Luke 3:26 Which was the son of Maath, which was the son of Mattathias, which was the son of Semei, which was the son of Joseph, which was the son of Juda, (KJV)

Which was the son of Maath . . . Surnamed Aser, who governed nine years:
Which was the son of Mattathias . . . called Eli Matathias, who governed twelve years:
Which was the son of Semei . . . and named Abner Semei, who governed eleven years:
Which was the son of Joseph . . . called Joseph the first, who governed seven years:
Which was the son of Juda . . . who, according to the same writer, must be Judas, surnamed Hyrcanus the first, who governed fourteen years.


Luke 3:27 Which was the son of Joanna, which was the son of Rhesa, which was the son of Zorobabel, which was the son of Salathiel, which was the son of Neri, (KJV)

Which was the son of Joanna . . . Johannes, or John, the son of Rhesa Mesullam, who governed fifty three years:
Which was the son of Rhesa . . . called, by the above writer, Rhesa Mesullam; ( 1 Chron.3:19) and said, by him, to govern sixty six years:
Which was the son of Zorobabel . . . who governed fifty eight years:
Which was the son of Salathiel . . . the same with Shealthiel; (Mat.1:12).
Which was the son of Neri . . . the same with Jechonias, according to the Alexandrian, chronicle; (Mat.1:12).


Luke 3:28 Which was the son of Melchi, which was the son of Addi, which was the son of Cosam, which was the son of Elmodam, which was the son of Er, (KJV)

Which was the son of Melchi . . . this, with the following, "Addi, Cosam, Elmodam, Er, Jose, Eliezer, Jorim, Matthat, Levi, Simeon, Juda, Joseph, Jonan, Eliakim, Melea, Menan, and Mattatha", all lived before the captivity, and were of the house of David, in the line of Nathan; for it follows,
Which was the son of Nathan . . . of which persons no mention is made in the Old Testament, nor even of Mattatha, the son of Nathan: his sons that are mentioned are Azariah, Zabud, and Ahishar, (1 Ki.4:5-6) which is thought to be the same with Mattatha: that Nathan was the son of David, as the order of things here directs,
Which was the son of David . . . is clear from (2 Sam.5:14; 1 Chron.3:5; 14:4).  
For verses 24-30, see Mat.1:13-15. In Luke 3:27,  Salathiel is called the son, while in Mat.1:12,  he is called the father of Zerubbabel. Are they are different persons?

Luke 3:29 Which was the son of Jose, which was the son of Eliezer, which was the son of Jorim, which was the son of Matthat, which was the son of Levi, (KJV)

Luke 3:30  Which was the son of Simeon, which was the son of Juda, which was the son of Joseph, which was the son of Jonan, which was the son of Eliakim, (KJV)

Luke 3:31 Which was the son of Melea, which was the son of Menan, which was the son of Mattatha, which was the son of Nathan, which was the son of David, (KJV)

Luke 3:32  Which was the son of Jesse, which was the son of Obed, which was the son of Booz, which was the son of Salmon, which was the son of Naasson, (KJV)

The son of Jesse, the son of Obed, the son of Boaz, the son of Salmon; he may have been one of the two spies who were sent to Jericho by Joshua (Josh.2:1-24), the son of Nahshon; he was prince of the tribe of Judah during the wanderings in the wilderness (Num.1:4-7; 10:14). See: (Mat.1:1-16).

Luke 3:33  Which was the son of Aminadab, which was the son of Aram, which was the son of Esrom, which was the son of Phares, which was the son of Juda, (KJV)

Luke 3:34  Which was the son of Jacob, which was the son of Isaac, which was the son of Abraham, which was the son of Thara, which was the son of Nachor, (KJV)

Luke 3:35  Which was the son of Saruch, which was the son of Ragau, which was the son of Phalec, which was the son of Heber, which was the son of Sala, (KJV)

Which was the son of Saruch . . . the Septuagint call him Serouch, the same with Serug (Gen.11:22-23).  
Which was the son of Ragau . . . the same with Reu, ( Gen.40:20-21).
Which was the son of Phaleg . . . the same with Peleg, (Gen.11:18-19), the Septuagint reads: "which was the son of Heber", or Eber, (Gen.11:16-17)
Which was the son of Sala . . . or Salah, (Gen.11:14-15), the Septuagint call him Sala.


Luke 3:36  Which was the son of Cainan, which was the son of Arphaxad, which was the son of Sem, which was the son of Noe, which was the son of Lamech, (KJV)

Which was the son of Cainan . . . this Cainan is not mentioned by Moses in (Gen.11:12),  nor has he ever appeared in any Hebrew copy of the Old Testament, nor in the Samaritan version, nor in the Targum; nor is he mentioned by Josephus, nor in (1 Chron.1:24), where the genealogy is repeated. It stands in the present copies of the Septuagint, but was not originally there; and therefore could not be taken by Luke from there, but seems to be owing to some early negligent transcriber of Luke's Gospel.
Which was the son of Arphaxad . . . (Gen.11:12-13).
Which was the son of Sem . . . or Shem (Gen.11:10-11).
Which was the son of Noe . . . or Noah (Gen.5:32,  
Which was the son of Lamech . . . (Gen.5:28-29).

Luke 3:37  Which was the son of Mathusala, which was the son of Enoch, which was the son of Jared, which was the son of Maleleel, which was the son of Cainan, (KJV)

Which was the son of Mathusala . . . the same with Methuselah; and so he is called by the Septuagint in (Gen.5:25-27).  
Which was the son of Enoch . . . (Gen.5:21-22).
Which was the son of Jared . . . (Gen.5:18-19).
Which was the son of Maleleel . . . the same with Mahalaleel; who is also so called by the seventy interpreters, in (Gen.5:15-16) as here; which was the son of Cainan, (Gen.5:12).  

Luke 3:38  Which was the son of Enos, which was the son of Seth, which was the son of Adam, which was the son of God.  (KJV)

Which was the son of Enos . . . (Gen.5:9-10).
Which was the son of Seth . . . (Gen.5:6-7).
Which was the son of Adam . . . (Gen.5:3-4).
Which was the son of God . . . not begotten, as all the rest were, by their direct human parents, but created by God, in a supernatural manner, out of the dust of the earth (Gen.2:7), and quickened with the breath of God,  so Adam is called  by the Jews, "the son of God".

Matthew gives us the royal line of Christ, showing Him to be heir to the throne of His father David, Luke gives the natural line of Christ; and as Matthew traces His genealogy down from Abraham, in a descending line, to Joseph, the husband of Mary, the mother of Jesus, Luke traces it upwards, in an ascending line, from Mary by Joseph, even up to Adam; to whom the Messiah was first promised (Gen.3:15), and who was a type of the second Adam, from whom He descended, although not by ordinary generation, but according to His divine nature, was the only begotten of the Father; and as to His human nature, had a body prepared by Him, and in the fullness of time was God manifest in the flesh. Only begotten Son: (Jn.1:18; 3:16,18; Heb.11:17; 1 Jn.4:9).

Gospel of Luke

ch.1 . . ch.2 . . ch.3 . . ch.4 . . ch.5 . . ch.6 . . ch.7 . . ch.8 . . ch.9 . . ch.10 . . ch.11 . . ch.12 . . ch.13 . . ch.14 . . ch.15 . . ch.16 . . ch.17 . . ch.18 . .ch.19. . ch.20 . . ch.21 . . ch.22 . . ch.23 . . ch.24

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