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BIBLE STUDY on the Gospel of Mark
Theme: Teaching about marriage, divorce; rich young ruler; teaching about riches; Jesus talks about His death; the ambition of James and John; blind Bartimaeus.
The first verse tells us that "he arose from thence, and cometh into the coasts of Judaea by the farther side of Jordan." There is a movement here in Mark. The geography in Mark is quite interesting. Mark 9:30 says, "they departed thence, and passed through Galilee; and he would not that any man should know it." He was making His final departure from there and He did not want a big send off. Now He comes "into the coasts of Judaea by the farther side of Jordan," which means on the east side. That was in the area called Decapolis after the ten cities which were there. So now we find Him on the farther side of Jordan. The people are coming to Him again, and He taught them "as he was wont." He's now making His final ascent to Jerusalem. His persistent and non-stop enemies, are close behind Him, right on His trail.
Marriage and Divorce (Mark 10:1-12)
Mark 10:1 And he arose from thence, and cometh into the coasts of Judaea by the farther side of Jordan: and the people resort unto him again; and, as he was wont, he taught them again. (KJV)
And he arose from thence . . . from Galilee, and mainly from Capernaum.
And cometh into the coasts of Judea . . . into those places, which bordered that part of the land of Israel, called Judea.
By the further side of Jordan . . . or rather "to" which He crossed at the bridge of Chammath: the particular place He came to was Bethabara (Jn.1:28; 10:40), where John the Baptist formerly preached, and baptized. Mark is much more specific about the localities than Matthew is, for while Matthew says "into the coasts of Judea beyond the Jordan," Mark says, "into the coasts of Judea and beyond the Jordan," thus making a distinction between the two areas, instead of calling the region beyond the Jordan "the coasts of Judea."
And the people resorted unto him again . . . great multitudes followed Him out of Galilee, and without a doubt flocked to Him from the neighboring parts, when they heard of His coming again to them.
And, as he was wont, he taught them again . . . as he was wont, as it had been His custom before, so it was wherever He went, to preach the Word of God, and teach men what would profit them, and be useful for the good of their eternal souls . . . so He did now, and also healed many of them of their bodily disorders, as Matthew tells us (Mat.19:2).
Mark 10:2 And the Pharisees came to him, and asked him, Is it lawful for a man to put away his wife? tempting him. (KJV)
And the Pharisees came unto him . . . as they did everywhere, NOT to learn from Him, but to do their utmost best to trap Him.
And asked him, is it lawful for a man to put away his wife? . . . Matthew adds, "for every cause" and this is the meaning of the question as reported by Mark, seeing that IF it is "lawful to put away a wife," this privilege definitely makes the husband the judge of the cause (Mat.19:3). A divorce might be lawfully made for a reason of adultery, but NOT any, or every, cause; which seems to be the sense of the Pharisees' question. They really were not interested in the information, but they were . . .
Tempting him . . . trying to trap Him by His opposing the authority of Moses, should He deny the lawfulness of divorces, or by objecting His former doctrine (Mat.5:32), and then expose Him as being an inconsistent preacher, should He allow divorce to be lawful for every reason.
Mark 10:3 And he answered and said unto them, What did Moses command you? (KJV)
And he answered and said unto them . . . very rationally and wisely,
What did Moses command you? . . . according to Matthew, he put another question to them. Matthew 19:4 And he answered and said unto them, Have ye not read, that he which made them at the beginning made them male and female, (KJV) . . . No doubt both questions were asked by Jesus, and this after they had pressed the authority and law of Moses. Therefore He very rightly asks them, what Moses had said about divorces, what law he had given; and makes them produce and repeat it, that it might be looked at, and be considered, as to why it was given.
Mark 10:4 And they said, Moses suffered to write a bill of divorcement, and to put her away. (KJV)
And they said, Moses suffered to write a bill of divorcement, and to put her away . . . Moses did NOT command them to divorce their wives, he only gave orders that if they could not live with them, they should give them a bill, which should certify, they were so divorced, and then send them out of their houses, free to marry another man; this law, or permission, is in (Deut.24:1). See Mat.5:31.
Mark 10:5 And Jesus answered and said unto them, For the hardness of your heart he wrote you this precept. (KJV)
And Jesus answered and said unto them, For the hardness of your heart he wrote you this precept . . . this last remark is quoted out of its original connection by Mark, because He condenses the entire conversation. It was NOT because it was right to do so, or according to the original will of God; but because the Jews were such cruel and hard hearted men, that if this had not been allowed, some of them that had wives that were not agreeable to them, would have used them in a very inhuman manner, if not murdered them, Therefore to prevent further, and greater mischief, Moses consented to such a law (Mat.19:8).
Mark 10:6 But from the beginning of the creation God made them male and female. (KJV)
But from the beginning of the creation God made them male and female . . . the first that were created, Adam and Eve, the first parents of mankind, the first couple that came together were ONE MALE AND ONE FEMALE; so that there could be no polygamy or divorce: Adam could not have more wives than one: nor could he put away Eve, and marry another; no provision was made for any such usages and practices (Mat.19:4).
Mark 10:7 For this cause shall a man leave his father and mother, and cleave to his wife; (KJV)
For this cause shall a man leave his father and mother, and cleave to his wife . . . Matthew 19:4-6 And he answered and said unto them, Have ye not read, that he which made them at the beginning made them male and female, 5 And said, For this cause shall a man leave father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife: and they twain shall be one flesh? 6 Wherefore they are no more twain, but one flesh. What therefore God hath joined together, let not man put asunder. (KJV)
Mark 10:8 And they twain shall be one flesh: so then they are no more twain, but one flesh. (KJV)
And the twain shall be one flesh: so then they are no more twain; but one flesh . . . Genesis 2:24 Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh. (KJV) . . . As Adam and Eve were both by creation and marriage: and so too, two persons, a MAN AND A WOMAN, being lawfully married together, become one flesh, or "one body", and therefore the wife is to be loved by the husband as his own body, and from whom there should be no separation, until death, except in case of adultery. (Mat.19:6).
Mark 10:9 What therefore God hath joined together, let not man put asunder. (KJV)
What therefore God hath joined together, let not man put asunder . . . See above.
Mark 10:10 And in the house his disciples asked him again of the same matter. (KJV)
And in the house . . . where Jesus went to rest, after He had silenced the Pharisees and dismissed the multitude.
His disciples asked him again of the same matter . . . concerning divorces, that He had been discussing with the Pharisees, some things that were said, that they could not thoroughly understand; choosing to speak privately with Him about, for further information.
Mark 10:11 And he saith unto them, Whosoever shall put away his wife, and marry another, committeth adultery against her. (KJV)
And he saith unto them . . . the same things He said in Mat.5:32 and 19:9.
Whosoever shall put away his wife, and marry another . . . IF there is NO uncleanness in the case; when his former wife has not injured him by violating the marriage bed,
Committeth adultery against her . . . to the injury of his lawful wife; or "upon her", with the person he marries.
Mark 10:12 And if a woman shall put away her husband, and be married to another, she committeth adultery. (KJV)
And if a woman shall put away her husband . . . not that there was the same law, or the same allowance by the law of Moses, for a woman to put away her husband, as for the husband to put away the wife; nor was it practiced among the Jews, unless it came to be in use about this time, in their declining state, having taken it from the Gentiles. Salome, the sister of Herod the Great, sent a bill of divorce to her husband Costobarus; and in this she was followed by Herodias, the daughter of Aristobulus, as Josephus states; and which his own wife also did.
And be married to another, she committeth adultery . . . with the man she marries, and against, and to the injury of her former husband, unjustly left by her.
Blessing Little Children (Mark 10:13-16)
Mark 10:13 And they brought young children to him, that he should touch them: and his disciples rebuked those that brought them. (KJV)
And they brought young children to him . . . parents, friend or nurses of the children in those parts, heard of the fame of Jesus; and had a high opinion of Him as a great Prophet and a holy, good Man, brought their children to Him,
That he should touch them . . . as He did when He healed diseased persons, as these might be, although not stated:
And his disciples rebuked those that brought them . . . which did not set right with the Lord (Mat.19:13).
Mark 10:14 But when Jesus saw it, he was much displeased, and said unto them, Suffer the little children to come unto me, and forbid them not: for of such is the kingdom of God. (KJV)
But when Jesus saw it, he was much displeased, and said unto them . . . seeing that His apostles reproved those that brought their children to Him, who took too much upon themselves. They should have known their Master's will; and that it was His pleasure to grant the favor desired for these children, and NOT to have forbid them.
Suffer the little children to come unto me, and forbid them not; for of such is the kingdom of God . . . was much displeased because #1. it was a pleasure for Him to receive and bless little children; and #2. the apostles were doing something that they were NOT commanded to do, and their interference was clearly improper.
Mark 10:15 Verily I say unto you, Whosoever shall not receive the kingdom of God as a little child, he shall not enter therein. (KJV)
Verily I say, unto you . . . this form of speech was used when our Lord was about to highlight a certain thing, something of great importance.
Whosoever shall not receive the kingdom of God as a little child . . . the Gospel and its mysteries, laying aside all pride and prejudice, accepting it with humility and meekness,
He shall not enter therein . . . he shall not realize any true spiritual knowledge of the Gospel; he shall not be a member of the family of Christ on Earth, even though he may profess to be a Christian . . . he shall never enter Heaven. To receive the Kingdom of God is different from entering into it. The distinction is made in this very sentence: "Whosoever shall not receive the kingdom as a little child, he shall not enter therein." Receiving the Kingdom comes before entering into it, and simply means to ACCEPT its teaching. Verily, I say unto you: (Mat.5:18; 6:2,5,16; 8:10; 10:15,23,42;11:11; 13:17; 16:28; 17:20; 18:3,13,18; 19:23,28; 21:31; 23:36; 24:34,47; 25:12,40;,45; 26:13; Mk.3:28; 6:11; 8:12; 9:1,41; 10:15,29; 11:23; 12:43; 13:30; 14:9,18,25; Lk.4:24; 11:51; 12:37; 13:35; 18:17,29; 21:32).
Mark 10:16 And he took them up in his arms, put his hands upon them, and blessed them. (KJV)
And he took them up in his arms, put his hands upon them, and blessed them . . . I think Jesus held them closely to His Bosom, revealing His great tenderness to them, and affection for them.
Rich Young Ruler (Mark 10:17-22)
Mark 10:17 And when he was gone forth into the way, there came one running, and kneeled to him, and asked him, Good Master, what shall I do that I may inherit eternal life? (KJV)
And when he was gone forth into the way . . . after He had blessed the children, He departed from the coasts of Judea, and headed towards Jerusalem (verse 32).
There came one running . . . a young man, a ruler among the Jews, and very rich, a person of great pride. He had heard that Christ was in those parts, he rushed to Him, to speak with him, before Jesus left.
And kneeled to him . . . as a sign of great respect and politeness. "And kneeled to him" some think that more is meant than bending his knees to Christ; that he also might take hold of the knees of Christ, and kiss them, as was usual with the Jewish Rabbis.
And asked him, good master, what shall I do that I may inherit eternal life? . . . this rich young man, was thinking of the world to come and the life of it, of which very FEW people do today, since he believed there was an eternal life after this life on Earth, so he was not a Sadducee, but he had wrong ideas about the way of attaining it. He thought it was to be had by the works of the law, which shows him to be a Pharisee. Eternal life is the gift of God (Rom.6:23; Eph.2:8), through the Messiah, the Person to whom he now spoke, and Who had the words of eternal life. To a more proper person he could not have put the question, for Jesus is the Way, the Truth and the Life (Jn.14:6), or the true and only Way to eternal life. This foolish young man with his own words, suggested that eternal life is an inheritance (1 Pet.1:4-5), he might have assumed that it is NOT to be attained by the works of men. Eternal life is the legacy of our heavenly Father to His children (Jn.1:12-13; 3:3-8), and comes by His will, by His Promise, and as a FREE gift. Eternal life is NOT of the law; nor are they that are of the law heirs of it (Rom.4:14; Gal.3:18). See (Mat.19:16).
Mark 10:18 And Jesus said unto him, Why callest thou me good? there is none good but one, that is, God. (KJV)
And Jesus said unto him . . . the same as in Mat. 19:17.
Why callest thou me good? . . . this He said, NOT to deny that He was good, or as being angry with him for calling Him so, but to lead this young man to a true knowledge of Him, and His goodness, and even of His deity.
There is none good, but one, that is, God . . . only God is good (Ex.34:6; Ps.25:8; 36:7; 52:1; 69:16; 86:5,15; 119:68; 130:7; 145:8-9; Joel 2:13; 1 Jn.4:8-9). Jesus speaks in the language of the Pharisees, and of this man; and His view is, to bring him to a sense of the impossibility of obtaining eternal life by the Law.
Mark 10:19 Thou knowest the commandments, Do not commit adultery, Do not kill, Do not steal, Do not bear false witness, Defraud not, Honour thy father and mother. (KJV)
Thou knowest the commandments . . . which God gave to Moses on Mount Sinai (Deut.5). The Jews taught their children; so this young man was almost certain to know what and how many they were.
Do not commit adultery, do not kill, do not steal, do not bear false witness, defraud not, honour thy father and mother . . . the first section of the commandments has to do with man's relationship to God. The second section has to do with man's relationship with man. Jesus did not speak of the man's relationship to God but of his relationship to man.
Mark 10:20 And he answered and said unto him, Master, all these have I observed from my youth. (KJV)
And he answered and, said unto him, Master, all these have I observed from my youth . . . he never hesitated, he said that he had kept the Laws since he was a child.
Mark 10:21 Then Jesus beholding him loved him, and said unto him, One thing thou lackest: go thy way, sell whatsoever thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven: and come, take up the cross, and follow me. (KJV)
Then Jesus, beholding him, loved him . . . not as God, with that special love, with which He loves His people, who were given to Him by His Father (Jn.10:29), who are redeemed by His precious Blood (1 Pet.1:18-19), whom He calls by His grace (Eph.2:8-9), justifies by His righteousness (Rom.5:1), forgives their iniquities (1 Jn.1:8-9), and lastly, glorifies . . . He loved him as Man, He had a human affection for him. Even though the young man revealed much vanity, pride and conceit, Jesus did not treat him crudely, but kindly and tenderly. I think that Jesus looked at him in sadness when He said the above words to this rich young man. Did Jesus believe that he had perfectly and completely kept all the commandments? NO. But He did not reproach him and charge him with pride and arrogance, but gave him good words, and spoke kindly to him. I think that as far as He could, Jesus commended him for his diligence in observing the commandments.
He said unto him One thing thou lackest . . . Matthew says: "if thou wilt be perfect" (Mat.19:21), before the next words,
Go thy way, sell whatsoever thou hast, and give to the poor, and thou shalt have treasure in heaven; and come, take up the cross, and follow me . . . this young man's worst sin seems to have been an overconfident affection for the things of this world. His riches were his idol, on which his heart was set, and in which he trusted . . . because of this, he was FAR from keeping all the commandments. Since he knew the commandments, he knew the first One: "thou shalt have no other gods before me". There was MORE than one thing lacking in him, but Christ takes notice of this as the main one. That clause, "take up the cross" is omitted by Matthew (Mat,19:21).
Mark 10:22 And he was sad at that saying, and went away grieved: for he had great possessions. (KJV)
And he was sad at that saying, and went away grieved: for he had great possessions . . . the three expressions, "they that have riches" (verse 23), "them that trust in riches" (verse 24), and "a rich man" (verse 25), are used in continual sentences to reveal the same character. These are alike but not identical. They show that this kind of rich man considered here is one who trusts in his riches, one who depends for happiness on his riches rather than on obedience to the will of God. There is a great danger in riches, and a great struggle to save rich men because of their tendency to thus trust in their riches. But my friend, those already rich are NOT the only ones exposed to this deadly danger. There are millions who are obsessive fanatics as they pursuit wealth. These too are equally exposed; for the apostle Paul said: 1 Timothy 6:9 But they that will be rich fall into temptation and a snare, and into many foolish and hurtful lusts, which drown men in destruction and perdition. (KJV)
That the young man lacked one thing, and especially that he should “sell whatsoever thou hast, and give to the poor” was NOT the answer he expected. And on top of that, “take up the cross, and follow me” just added to his distress. That he must take up the cross of reproach, affliction, persecution, and even death; was more that he bargained for. And went away grieved, for he had great possessions (Mat.19:22). Finding that he must part with two things his heart was set upon, his self-righteousness, and his wealth, was a shock to say the least. His pride was pricked, his vanity and self-conceit were uncovered; and he was to part with his substance. All these were very disagreeable to him. Do you think the man did as Jesus suggested? Personally, I think it is very doubtful.
The Danger of Riches (Mark 10:23-26)
Mark 10:23 And Jesus looked round about, and saith unto his disciples, How hardly shall they that have riches enter into the kingdom of God! (KJV)
And Jesus looked round about . . . to see what effect the words He had spoken to the young man, and what the result of it had on His apostles, and to get their attention to what He was about to say next.
And saith unto his disciples, How hardly shall they that have riches enter into the kingdom of God! . . . NOT because of God's mercy, but because of their own unwillingness to part with riches and use them for the glory of God and the good of others. It is VERY hard for them to stop "trusting in riches" and rely on God instead (1 Tim.6:9-12,17-19). See Mat.19:23. Mark then gives us the key to the interpretation of the whole discourse . . .
Mark 10:24 And the disciples were astonished at his words. But Jesus answereth again, and saith unto them, Children, how hard is it for them that trust in riches to enter into the kingdom of God! (KJV)
And the disciples were astonished at his words . . . they all expected that in a little while, the Kingdom of the Messiah would be set up in great worldly show and splendor; and that all the rich men of the nation would come into it, become His subjects, and join to support the glory and splendor of it.
But Jesus answereth again, and saith unto them, Children, how hard is it for them that trust in riches to enter into the kingdom of God! . . . it was common with the Jews to call the disciples, or scholars of the wise men "children" (2 Ki.2:3; Isa.8:18). This Jesus said partly to confirm what He had before said, at which His disciples were astonished; and partly to explain it, so that He was to be understood of those who trusted in their riches, set their hearts upon them, and placed their hope and happiness in them. He wanted them to know there was great difficulty, or better yet, the impossibility of these people of entering into the Kingdom of God. He goes on to more strongly express this in the following words.
Mark 10:25 It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God. (KJV)
AGAIN, Jesus tells the apostles how hard it is to resist riches. For rich men to become TRUE followers of Christ is next to impossible, and here He expresses Himself in this proverbial way.
It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle, than for a rich man to enter into the kingdom of God . . . many people miss the humor that the Lord at times used, and this Passage is one of those times. There are some people who come up with the explanation that there was a gate in Jerusalem called "The Eye of the Needle," and that for a camel to go through, it had to kneel to pass through it. The first time I heard that, I thought that it sounded very logical. But when I started searching the Bible for that gate, I could NOT find it. It is NOT in there. The meaning of Jesus’ Words is . . . a man had to become humble to enter the Kingdom of Heaven, which is also logical. But I think that misses the point completely. I really believe that the Lord Jesus could be talking about a real camel and a real needle with an eye. I have seen some fairly large needles with some fairly large eyes, but NEVER one with an eye large enough for a camel to pass through. A question: Is it really possible for a real camel to go through the eye of a real needle? NO! No way! He will not make it! It is impossible. BUT . . . would it be possible for God to put a camel through a needle's eye? YES! With God all things are possible! God can do anything! And my dear friend, only God can regenerate a man. THAT is the point the Lord is making here. It is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich man to enter into the Kingdom of God.
Many people today think they are going to be saved, by who they are or by what they have, or what church they belong to. That is absolutely false! You are truly saved when you find out and admit that you are a sinner, a beggar in God's sight, with nothing to offer Him for your salvation. If a person thinks that he can do something or pay God for salvation, he can NO more be saved than a camel can go through the eye of a needle. See: The Truth about salvation. . . . http://www.hisservants.org/how_can_i_be_saved_h_s.htm
Mark 10:26 And they were astonished out of measure, saying among themselves, Who then can be saved? (KJV)
And they were astonished out of measure . . . they were absolutely amazed, and their surprise greatly increased when the Lord used this comparison; which, in their fear showed, that it was utterly impossible for a rich man to enter into the Kingdom of God. They expressed their astonishment,
Saying, among themselves, who then can be saved? . . . they were very surprised at His first words; but when He confirmed them by the proverb of a camel's passing through the eye of a needle, they were, as Mark says, "astonished out of measure". They really did NOT think there was any difficulty whatsoever of rich men being accepted into the Kingdom of the Messiah, which they thought to be a worldly one, and would be filled with rich men. But, when He stated by the proverb, the impossibility of such men becoming the subjects of the Kingdom, their amazement increased.
Saying among themselves, Who then can be saved? . . . privately to one another. The amazement of the apostles should be considered in connection with the incident which came after the astonishing remark. IF they had been thinking of rich men who grind the poor and live licentiously, they would NOT have been surprised. But what was on their minds was that of a rich man who lacked only the one thing of being perfect. It was the statement that it was easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for such a rich man to be saved, that amazed them and brought on their question, "Who then can be saved?" (Mat.19:25).
Reward of Self-denial (Mark 10:27-31)
Mark 10:27 And Jesus looking upon them saith, With men it is impossible, but not with God: for with God all things are possible. (KJV) (KJV)
And Jesus, looking upon them . . . by their faces, He saw the surprise and concern of mind they were in, as well as by His omniscience, He knew their private thoughts among themselves.
Saith, With men it is impossible, but not with God; for with God all things are possible . . . to reduce a camel to so small a size, as to go through the eye of a needle? And to work upon a rich man's heart, so as to remove his trust and confidence in his worldly riches? And bring him to a submission with His will, and into His kingdom; and also to protect, and save his poor and mean followers, notwithstanding all the difficulties, dangers, and oppositions they meet with? YES! With God that is possible! (Mat.19:26).
Mark 10:28 Then Peter began to say unto him, Lo, we have left all, and have followed thee. (KJV)
Then Peter began to say unto him, Lo! we have left all, and have followed thee . . . after seeing that Christ had promised treasure in Heaven to the young man, IF he sold all that he had, and gave it to the poor. In some measure, Peter and his fellow apostles, were freed from that surprise and astonishment, which had seized them, at the great difficulty of a rich man's entering into the kingdom of God.
Mark 10:29 And Jesus answered and said, Verily I say unto you, There is no man that hath left house, or brethren, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands, for my sake, and the gospel's, (KJV)
And Jesus answered and said, Verily I say unto you . . . Mark omits what Matthew tells us; that while Peter, and his fellow apostles had followed Christ in the present time, in the future when He appeared in his glory, they should sit upon twelve thrones, and judge the twelve tribes of Israel (Mat.19:28).
There is no man that hath left house, or brethren, or sister, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or lands, for my sake, and the Gospel's . . . not only the apostles of Christ, but any other believer in Him, in any age, that would leave their homes, or leave their closest relations, friends, and substance for the cause of Christ, for the sake of preaching, or professing Christ, and His Gospel. The word "wife" is left out in some versions, perhaps because it is not repeated in the following verse. (Mat19:29).
Mark 10:30 But he shall receive an hundredfold now in this time, houses, and brethren, and sisters, and mothers, and children, and lands, with persecutions; and in the world to come eternal life. (KJV)
But he shall receive an hundred fold now in this time . . . Luke adds, "in this present time", in this world; which may be understood either in spiritual things, the love of God, the Presence of Christ, the comforts of the Holy Ghost, the unity of saints, and the joys and pleasures felt in the enjoyment of these things, being a hundred times better than all they have left or lost for Christ's sake; or in temporary things of the world.
Houses, and brethren, and sisters, and mothers, and children, and lands,with persecutions; and in the world to come eternal life . . . they would not receive for the leaving one house, a hundred houses; or for forsaking one brother, a hundred brethren . . . which is true, as to a spiritual relation; but the true meaning is that the small meager amount of this world's goods, and the few friends they would have "with persecutions" along with them, and amidst them, would be so changed for the betterment to them, with the love and Presence of God, and that these would be more and SO much better to them than a hundred houses, fields, and friends, without them. And in the world to come eternal life . . . which is SO much better, for this is an inheritance incorruptible, undefiled, which fades not away, reserved in the heavens for you (1 Pet.1:4), when ALL worldly inheritances are corruptible, defiled, they fade and the perish . . . houses fall, people die, friends fail you time and time again, and lands change from one day to the next. The children of God have the very best of what God has to offer . . . IF they give up all worldly enjoyments for Jesus’ sake, they are granted favor with His Presence in the world to come, for they shall enjoy eternal glory and happiness with Him forever. There shall be a reward for ALL the saved ones who have sacrificed for Jesus' sake. Many of these shall be unknown saints, of whom the wicked world has never heard, and will be given great rewards in His Presence someday. In that day I truly think that many of the well-known Christian leaders who receive extensive praise in this life, will be totally ignored, while many unknown saints of God will be rewarded. What a glorious and delightful picture this presents to us!With persecutions . . . means that this must be expected, even amidst the greatest happiness, and highest enjoyments of this life; although quite often even that which the saints enjoy, while they are in the harshest manner persecuted for Christ, it is an hundred times better than to lose their life for His sake . . . for in the world to come they shall have eternal life, and THEN they will be doubly compensated. An old Jewish saying: “if a man will give all the substance of his house to obtain wisdom in the captivity, I will return unto him, "double in the world to come". Instead of rebuking Peter, Jesus promised a reward for those who sacrifice for Him, back then and today!
Mark 10:31 But many that are first shall be last; and the last first. (KJV)
But many that are first shall be last . . . (Mat.19:30). After the Lord Jesus, having blessed the poor, especially those who had stripped themselves of all for His sake and the Gospel's, Peter raised up some hope for himself, who had NO riches to trust in or have his heart cleave unto, and had stripped himself of all that little he had to follow Christ. Christ assures him that neither he, nor any other that had done so, should by it lose any thing; for although in this life they would have persecutions, yet they would be amply rewarded in value, if not in kind, in this world, and with infinite happiness in the next.
Speaking again of His death to them.
Ambition of James and John (Mark 1:35-45)
Mark 10:32 And they were in the way going up to Jerusalem; and Jesus went before them: and they were amazed; and as they followed, they were afraid. And he took again the twelve, and began to tell them what things should happen unto him, (KJV)
And they were in the way . . . on the road, having left the coasts of Judea on the further side of Jordan.
Going up to Jerusalem . . . to the Passover there, which would be in a short time, and where Christ was to suffer and die. This was the last journey He took, and the last Passover He was to eat there.
And Jesus went before them . . . as their Guide and Leader, with no fear even though He knew what would happen to Him, and what plans were being formed against Him. I feel sure He did this to inspire His apostles with courage, and leave with them an example that they should walk as He walked.
And they were amazed . . . at His willingness to go up to Jerusalem, and the cheerful Spirit He had, when He had so many and such powerful enemies there. In going, He exposed Himself to the greatest dangers.
And as they followed . . . none of them choose to leave Him, nor did they want to leave Him, but were determined to continue with Him all the way, even though . . .
They were afraid . . . what would be the result of it would be to themselves, as well as to Him; for they as His followers, could not expect anything other than the same ill usage to them, from His enemies.
And he took again the twelve . . . the apostles, as He had done before, (verse 31).
And began to tell them what things should happen unto him . . . being what was pre-determined by God, agreed to by Himself, and foretold in the Scriptures; for these were NOT casual and conditional events.
Mark 10:33 Saying, Behold, we go up to Jerusalem; and the Son of man shall be delivered unto the chief priests, and unto the scribes; and they shall condemn him to death, and shall deliver him to the Gentiles: (KJV)
Saying, Behold we go up to Jerusalem . . .they were now on the road there.
And the son of man . . . meaning Himself,
Shall be delivered unto the chief priests, and unto the Scribes . . . by the determinate counsel, and foreknowledge of God (Acts 2:23), and by the means of a deceitful and disloyal apostle of His, Judas.
And they shall condemn him to death . . . as they will do in the palace of the high priest (Mk.14:64).
And shall deliver him to the Gentiles . . . to the Romans, to Pontius Pilate, the Roman governor; either because they had not then power to put Him to death themselves, or because they were wanted Him to die the death of the cross, a Roman punishment.
Mark 10:34 And they shall mock him, and shall scourge him, and shall spit upon him, and shall kill him: and the third day he shall rise again. (KJV)
And they shall mock him, and shall scourge him . . . the Gentiles (Roman soldiers) did scourge Him, by their own viciousness (Mk.14:65; 15:19) and by the other by the order of their governor. (Mat.27:26).
And shall spit upon him . . . on His face (Mk.15:19). According to the order in which these things were done, He was first scourged, then mocked, and then spit upon: all which express both the cruel and indecent treatment He was to meet with.
And shall kill him, and the third day he shall rise again . . . unusually explicit as this announcement was: Luke 18:34 And they understood none of these things: and this saying was hid from them, neither knew they the things which were spoken. (KJV) . . . The meaning of the words they could be at no loss to understand, but their being imported to His Messianic Kingdom they could not comprehend. This whole prediction did NOT fit in with their preconceived ideas of the Kingdom. They simply clung ever so stubbornly to the popular notion of an "non-suffering" Messiah. This third prediction of His final sufferings is much more contingent than either of the preceding ones (Mk.8:31; 9:31). He now gives the heart of it, in chronological order, the entire history of the woeful event. See: (Mat.20:18-19).
Mark 10:35 And James and John, the sons of Zebedee, come unto him, saying, Master, we would that thou shouldest do for us whatsoever we shall desire. (KJV)
And James, and John, the sons of Zebedee, came unto him . . . (Mat.20:20). Their mother, who spoke for them, and they by her.
Saying, master, we would that thou shouldst do for us whatsoever we shall desire . . . they earnestly desired to ask a favor to of Jesus, and really did not want Him to deny it.
Mark 10:36 And he said unto them, What would ye that I should do for you? (KJV)
And he said unto them. . . and also to their mother,
What would ye that I should do for you? . . . Jesus insists that they tell Him, although He already knows exactly what they want!
Mark 10:37 They said unto him, Grant unto us that we may sit, one on thy right hand, and the other on thy left hand, in thy glory. (KJV)
They said unto him . . . by their mother, or agreeing with her.
Grant unto us that we may sit, one on thy right hand, and the other on thy left hand, in thy glory . . . meaning His glorious Kingdom, which they expected would be quickly set up, that when He would sit on His throne, they would sit on the choice seats right next to Him. (Mat.20:21).
Mark 10:38 But Jesus said unto them, Ye know not what ye ask: can ye drink of the cup that I drink of? and be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with? (KJV)
But Jesus said unto them . . . NOT by granting them what they desired, but by revealing their ignorance to them.
Ye know not what ye ask . . . they were totally unaware of the nature of Christ's Kingdom, which is spiritual, and NOT of this world: or they would never have asked such a question.
Can ye drink of the cup that I drink of? . . . to drink of a cup, in the Scriptures often means to be afflicted, or sometimes to be punished (Isa.51:17,22; Ps.75:8). The form is taken from a feast, where the master of a feast extends a cup to those present. Here, God is represented as extending to His Son a cup filled with a bitter mixture . . . one that would cause deep sufferings (Jn.18:11). This was the cup to which He referred. Cup of Jesus: (Ps.75:8; Eze.23:31; Mat.16:21; 20:18-22; 26:39,42; Mk.14:35-36; Lk.22:42; Heb.12:2; 1 Pet.2:24; 3:18).
And be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with? . . . are ye able to suffer with me . . . to endure the trials and pains which shall come upon you and me? Are you able to be plunged deep in afflictions, to have sorrows cover you like a flood? Afflictions are often expressed in the Bible by being sunk in the floods, and plunged in the deep waters (Ps.18:4; 42:7; 69:15; 124:4-5; Isa.8:7-8; 28:2; 43:2; 59:19; Jer.46:7-8; Lam.3:54; Dan.9:26; Rev.12:15-16; 17:1,15).
Mark 10:39 And they said unto him, We can. And Jesus said unto them, Ye shall indeed drink of the cup that I drink of; and with the baptism that I am baptized withal shall ye be baptized: (KJV)
And they said unto him we can . . . they say they are able . . . they did NOT consider the nature of these sufferings, nor their weakness; but through ignorance and vain confidence they thought they possessed strength to do so, they thought drinking his cup, and being baptized with his baptism, were the conditions and way of enjoying the Kingdom, and they foolishly confirm their ability.
Ye shall indeed drink of the cup that I drink of . . . which Christ speaks of in the present time, partly because His sorrows and sufferings had already begun: and He had already been drinking of the cup of sorrows, being a man of sorrows and acquainted with griefs, all His days (Isa.53:4).
And with the baptism that I am baptized withal shall ye be baptized. . . this clause is omitted in some versions. IF tradition is right, and James was bathed in his own blood when he was killed with the sword, and John being cast into a vessel of scalding oil . . . that would rightly express a baptism. To be baptized with His baptism is just another instance of their ignorance. They were ignorant of their own weakness as well as of the greatness of the sufferings Christ would endure or what they would be called to (Mat.20:22).
Mark 10:40 But to sit on my right hand and on my left hand is not mine to give; but it shall be given to them for whom it is prepared. (KJV)
But to sit on my right hand and on my left, is not mine to give . . . there were NO such places in His Kingdom that were set aside for any particular people. The glories of the Heaven, that of eternal life, the GIFT of these was not to be settled now, for it had been done already. It is to be given only to them who were given to Him by His Father (Jn.10:29), and who were intended to such happiness as it follows:
But it shall be given to them for whom it is prepared . . . eternal life, or the heavenly glory, is a Kingdom prepared by Jesus’ Father, from the foundation of the world (Tit.1:2), and NOT just certain people, but for EVERY person who accepts Jesus’ work on the cross.
I really do think that there are distinctions (differences, divisions) in Heaven just as there are in Hell. I do not think that all who go to Hell shall receive the same punishment. There is a great difference between a sadistic, cold-blooded killer and a kind, good-hearted person who refuses to accept God’s only Way to Heaven (Jesus, Jn.14:6). Unbelief is a SIN and will place a person in Hell. http://www.hisservants.org/worst_sin_h_s.htm . . . BOTH people shall receive eternal destruction in the Lake of Fire (Rev.20:15), but one will receive greater punishment because of repeated violence and judged according to their sins (Rev.20:12-13).
I also believe there are distinctions in Heaven; a person who has faithfully served God for many years will receive greater reward that the person who accepted Jesus on their death-bed. They BOTH receive eternal life in Heaven, but one will receive more reward than the other.
There is a very important message here to Christians today. Our Lord is NOT saying that there is NO place at His right Hand and left Hand for someone. He is saying that He will NOT randomly give the positions to James and John or to anyone else. He is saying that those places are for those who prepare themselves for them. Please consider this: Heaven is for the asking, for whosoever! You do nothing, NOT one thing to obtain salvation. Eph. 2:8-9 For by grace are ye saved through faith; and that not of yourselves: it is the gift of God: 9 Not of works, lest any man should boast. (KJV) . . . You are saved by your faith in Christ through His marvelous grace. BUT . . . your position, your reward in Heaven is determined, or decided, by what YOU do in this life on Earth. That is extremely important, and most “Christians” seem to have lost sight of it. What kind of a place are you preparing for yourself? As for me personally, I have absolutely no thought for those places on Christ's right or left hand. I honestly think that I really am “least of all saints” (Eph.3:8). I keep pressing onward, not because I must or have to, but because I want to. I can never repay my Saviour for what He has done for me. I can never love Him enough. Serving Him is a tremendous joy and privilege. Phil. 3:14 I press toward the mark for the prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus. (KJV) . . . Far too few Christians today are trying to win anything. We must understand that salvation as a free gift (Rom.6:23; Eph.2:8), but we must get on the race course of life if we want to receive a reward. (Mat.20:23).
Mark 10:41 And when the ten heard it, they began to be much displeased with James and John. (KJV)
And when the ten heard it . . . the request made by the sons of Zebedee and/or their mother for them,
They began to be much displeased with James and John . . . or "were moved with indignation," as in (Mat.20:24). The words "began to be," is frequently found in the Gospels (Mat.26:37; Mk.10:41; 14:19,33; Lk.3:23; 15:14,24), and means that more passed than is expressed, and that we just have the result. Can we really blame the ten for the anger and resentment they felt? These men were normal, red-blooded men with feelings, just as we are today. There probably was a bit of conflict and rivalry in what happened, even in spite of our Lord's recent and most solemn warnings against it.
Mark 10:42 But Jesus called them to him, and saith unto them, Ye know that they which are accounted to rule over the Gentiles exercise lordship over them; and their great ones exercise authority upon them. (KJV)
But Jesus called them to him . . . they must have been some distance away from Him, but close enough that He could detect the heat and passion they were in, and knowing that they too, had the same ambitious views as the two brothers.
And saith unto them . . . to discourage their pride and vanity and rebuke them for their ambitious desires of superiority and pre-eminence over one another; by showing them that this was the way the Heathens acted, that did not know God, and therefore was it was very unbecoming to them.
You know that they which are accounted rule over the Gentiles . . . those who are recognized or acknowledged as rulers.
Exercise lordship over them . . . rule over them in a superior, tyrannical and arbitrary way.
And their great ones . . . their nobles and lords under them
Exercise authority over them . . . the Lord Jesus tells them that the rulers of the Gentiles have power over them, and the officials have complete authority to lord it over the people beneath them. They also declare a preeminence over them, and exercise authority on those that are beneath them; which they have received from those that are above them. This is the usual method of the governments of the kingdoms of this world . . . and therefore, for the apostles to desire a superiority to each other in the Kingdom of Christ, was to imitate the Gentiles, and to act according to worldly forms of government; which is very unsuitable to the followers of the meek and lowly Jesus, whose Kingdom is spiritual, and not of this world.
Mark 10:43 But so shall it not be among you: but whosoever will be great among you, shall be your minister: (KJV)
But so shall it not be among you . . . or "so let it not be", as in some copies; or "it ought not to be so among you"; for such an arrogant spirit does not become you; this is like a Heathen.
But whosoever will be great among you shall be your minister . . . Matthew says "let him be", (Mat.20:26). This was just the complete REVERSE of what the two apostles wanted! They wanted to have it so all the rest would be subject to them and attendants on them to be sent out as they saw fit. BUT . . . the only way to promotion and greatness in Christ's Kingdom, or the Gospel church state, is to labor in the work of the ministry more abundantly than others; to take great pains and endure great hardships in order to bring great glory to God, and strive do much good to the souls of men. (Mat.20:26).
Mark 10:44 And whosoever of you will be the chiefest, shall be servant of all. (KJV)
And whosoever of you will be the chiefest . . . whoever wants the highest place and the greatest honor, must be a humble servant, and . . .
Shall be servant of all . . . for the ministers of the Gospel are not only the servants of Christ Jesus, but also of the churches for His sake; and when they serve the churches, they serve Christ. This does not mean that they are to be the servants of men and to take their instructions from them and act according to rules prescribed by them; nor does it mean seek to please men, for then they would not be the servants of Christ. It means they are to become servants to all that they may win souls to Christ, and increase His churches, and widen His interest. The ones who do this, are the chiefest in the Gospel church state; they are honored by Christ and respected by His people. (Mat.20:27). God’s way of doing things is to take those who are humble and make themselves small by serving, and place these lowly ones as the leaders. The chief must be the servant of all. Then Jesus gives us the KEY to this Truth.
Mark 10:45 For even the Son of man came not to be ministered unto, but to minister, and to give his life a ransom for many. (KJV)
For even the son of man . . . meaning Christ Himself, for Son of Man is a Name by which He is often called, both in the Old and New Testament. Jesus adds this as His own example, to teach His apostles humility and lowliness of mind and to keep in check their ambitious desires. “Son of Man” used in the Gospels and Book of Acts about 390 times.
Came not to be ministered unto . . . He came in the form of a servant to others, doing good, both to the bodies and souls of men: He "came" forth from His Father, from Heaven, into this world, by assuming human nature, to "minister" in the prophetic office, preaching the Gospel and working miracles.
And to give his life a ransom for many . . . ransom means a price paid for the redemption of captives. It is the means by which they are set free. Anything that releases any one from a state of punishment, or suffering, or sin, is called a ransom. Men are by nature captives to sin. They are sold under it, and are under condemnation (Eph.2:3; Rom.3:9-20,23; 1 Jn.5:19). They are under a curse (Gal.3:10). They are literally, simply, in love with sin, and are exposed to eternal death (Eze.18:4; Ps.9:17; 11:6; 68:2; 139:19; Matt.25:46; Rom.2:6-9). They would perish in the Lake of Fire (Rev.20:15), UNLESS there had been some way made possible by which they could be rescued. God the Father made this One and Only Way (Jn.14:6) possible for “whosoever” might be interested in going to Heaven instead of Hell. This Way was achieved by the death of Jesus, His only begotten Son (Jn.3:16); by giving His life as a ransom for us sinners. It all boils down to: He died willingly in the place of sinners, and that God was willing to accept the pains of His death in the place of the eternal suffering of the redeemed. The reasons why such a ransom was necessary are:
#1. God shows His hatred (punishment), to all sin (disobedience to Him). God declared that the sinner must die (2 Thes.1:8-9; 1 Pet.4:17-18; Col.3:25; Heb.10:29-31).
#2. That all men had sinned; and if justice was to take its regular course, all must perish (Rom.3:9,23; 5:12).
#3. That man could make NO atonement for his own sins. Repentance and future obedience CANNOT blot away even one sin (Jn.6:28-29; Rom.3:20; 5:1,9-10; 9:32; 11:6; Gal.2:16; 5:1; Eph.2:8:9; 2 Tim.1:9; Tit.3:4-5).
For many: (Mat.26:28; Jn.10:16; 2 Cor.5:14-15; 1 Tim.2:6; Heb.2:9; 1 Jn.2:2).
But to minister: (Lk.22:27; Jn.13:1-38; 4:14-15 Phil.2:7).
And to give: (Isa.53:5,8,11; Dan.9:24-27; 1 Tim.2:6; Tit.2:14; Heb.9:28; 1 Pet.1:18-19; Rev.1:5-6).
The Healing of Blind Bartimeus (Mark 10:46-52)
Mark 10:46 And they came to Jericho: and as he went out of Jericho with his disciples and a great number of people, blind Bartimaeus, the son of Timaeus, sat by the highway side begging. (KJV)
And they came to Jericho . . . Christ and His apostles, came from the coasts of Judea, beyond Jordan, on their way to Jerusalem; where Christ met with Zaccheus and converted him, and after a short stay at his house, departed from there.
And as he went out of Jericho with his disciples, and a great number of people . . . followed Him out of that city, to go with Him to Jerusalem, which was about ten miles away. Jesus must have passed by Bartimeus a first time when He left Jericho (Lk.18:35). Now a little later,
Blind Bartimeus, the son of Timaeus, sat by the highway side begging . . . Bartimeus was one of the two blind men Matthew mentions (Mat.20:30).
Mark 10:47 And when he heard that it was Jesus of Nazareth, he began to cry out, and say, Jesus, thou Son of David, have mercy on me. (KJV)
And when he heard that it was Jesus of Nazareth . . . that passed by, which he might learn by asking someone in the multitude of people, and the noise; or he might have heard His Name mentioned.
He began to cry out . . . very loudly, and with great passion, often repeating it,
And say, Jesus, thou son of David, have mercy on me . . . he did not call Him Jesus of Nazareth, as the common people did, but Jesus, the son of David, a title of the Messiah; nor did he ask for money. He asked for mercy. (Mat.20:30). Son of David, Jesus: (2 Sam.7:16; Ps.89:36; 132:11; Isa.9:6-7; 11:1; Jer.23:5; 33:15-17,26; Amos 9:11; Zec.12:8; Mat.9:27; 15:22; 22:42-45; Lk.1:31-32,69-70; Jn.7:42; Acts 2:30; 13:22; Rom.1:3; Rev.22:16)
Mark 10:48 And many charged him that he should hold his peace: but he cried the more a great deal, Thou Son of David, have mercy on me. (KJV)
And many charged him that he should hold his peace . . . told him to be quiet.
But he cried the more a great deal . . . he just cried out more loudly, and repeated the same words over and over: Thou Son of David, have mercy on me. (Mat.20:31).
Mark 10:49 And Jesus stood still, and commanded him to be called. And they call the blind man, saying unto him, Be of good comfort, rise; he calleth thee. (KJV)
And Jesus stood still, and commanded him to be called . . . Jesus heard him and heard the reprimands that were given to him to be silent. He told them to bring the man to Him.
And they call the blind man, saying unto him, be of good comfort, rise, he calleth thee . . . can you imagine what this poor man thought? He had probably become well known by his zeal and activity in the cause of Christ following the recovery of his eyesight. Mark describes his restoration to sight without saying anything of the other man who sat with him and was healed at the same time. (Mat.20:34).
Consider: that such whom Christ effectively calls by His grace, of which this occurrence is symbolic, have reason to be of good comfort; called ones may take comfort from it, and be assured that they are loved by God; since it is a fruit, effect and evidence, of God's everlasting love to them; and that they are the chosen of God, for, whom he did predestinate, he calls (Rom.8:29-30), and that they are Christ's, and are redeemed by Him (1 Pet.1:8; Rev.5:9). These may expect all good things from Him seeing they are called according to grace (Eph.2:8-9), given them in Him before the world began (Jn.17:24; Eph.1:4; 1 Pet.1:20); and are called to participate in the bountiful blessings of His grace. It is confirmed that all things work together for their good (Rom.8:28), so that they may live in the faith and hope of eternal glory and happiness; since they that are called, are justified (Rom.5:1,9), and shall be glorified (Rom.8:30).
Mark 10:50 And he, casting away his garment, rose, and came to Jesus. (KJV)
And he, casting away his garment . . . most likely so he could get to Jesus quicker.
Rose . . . up from off the bank or ground, where he had been sitting. He "sprung up" as some versions read, and hurriedly.
And came to Jesus . . . being led by the persons that were sent to get him. There was great anxiety and joy to get to Jesus as quickly as possible. When men get this serious in seeking God, they WILL find Him, NO exceptions. The sincerity of the blind man overcame all difficulties. How many people today allow even the tiniest thing to obstruct them in prayer and in obeying God? Blessed is the man that will NOT tolerate ANYTHING to hinder him from getting to God and getting answers to prayers that are in agreement with the Promises and Gospel provision. The more this man cried out, the more his faith grew, and the more he was hindered, the more bold he was in trying to get what he wanted.
Mark 10:51 And Jesus answered and said unto him, What wilt thou that I should do unto thee? The blind man said unto him, Lord, that I might receive my sight. (KJV)
And Jesus answered and said unto him . . . when he came to Jesus and was standing before Him.
What wilt thou that I should do unto thee? . . . why are you crying out so? What is it you desire? What will ye that I shall do unto you?As in (Mat.20:32)
The blind man said unto him, Lord, that I might receive my sight . . . my request to Thee, and which Thou art able to give is, that I might receive my sight. (Mat.20:33).
Mark 10:52 And Jesus said unto him, Go thy way; thy faith hath made thee whole. And immediately he received his sight, and followed Jesus in the way. (KJV)
And Jesus said unto him, Go thy way . . . go to your own house, your request is granted. In Matthew, it is granted to both the blind men.
Thy faith hath made thee whole . . . or "saved thee". This respected not only the power of Christ in restoring his sight, but his faith in Jesus as the Messiah, the son of David: so that by Christ, the object of his faith, he was saved, both in soul and body; and had his spiritual sight, before he had his bodily sight, and both from Christ!
And immediately he received his sight . . . he saw again as well as ever he did, or as other men.
And followed Jesus in the way . . . that is, to Jerusalem. Personal faith will always be rewarded, regardless of what the need is or how impossible it seems to be filled. (Mat.17:20; 21:21-22; Mk.9:23; 11:22-24). Men receive "according to" faith (Mat.9:29).
Comment: Jesus is revealed as a Teacher, a Prophet and a Miracle Worker. His instruction on the subject of divorce (verses 1-12), shows a knowledge of the main intention of God concerning the relation of the sexes, and an insight into the plan of the Mosaic Law on the subject, which not only rose high above the Jewish learning of that age, but revealed a knowledge of the unrevealed counsel of God. NO One but the Son of God, could speak the mind of God, or could blamelessly speak as He speaks on this subject.
His teaching on the spiritual relations of children; on the duties and dangers connected with riches; on the rewards of self-sacrifice for His sake; and on the true exercise of ambition, are all alike suited to His character as the Son of God, and to the highest happiness of mankind. It is inconceivable that they can be the teachings of an ignorant or a wicked pretender.
His superhuman wisdom is displayed in His teaching, His ability to look with divine foreknowledge into all the details of future events is demonstrated by His microscopic description of the sufferings which awaited Him.
The account of blind Bartimeus, proves again His power to heal, and reflects additional credibility on the account of His previous miracles. This man, being blind, could have known of the previous miracles only by hearsay; he could not have seen them for himself. That he believed in the power of Jesus to heal, shows the abundance and sufficiency of the testimony which was brought to his ears; and the very existence of this testimony in regard to a matter about which men could not be mistaken, is proof that real miracles had been done by the Lord Jesus Christ!
Gospel of Mark
ch.1 . . ch.2 . . ch.3 . . ch.4 . . ch.5 . . ch.6 . . ch.7 . . ch.8 . . ch.9. . ch.10. . ch.11 . . ch.12 . . ch.13 . . ch.14 . . ch.15 . . ch.16