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Book of Isaiah
Isaiah Chapter 43
Chapters 40-66 form the crown to the first section of Isaiah (Chapters 1-39) by properly preparing the reader. The three subsections of chapters 40-66 are obvious. The Chapters are evenly split into three sections. These sections are outstanding because of the way they end . . . NOT the way they begin.
Ch.40-48: Isaiah 48:22 There is no peace, saith the LORD, unto the wicked. (KJV)
Ch.49-57: Isaiah 57:21 There is no peace, saith my God, to the wicked. (KJV)
Ch.58-66: Isaiah 66:24 And they shall go forth, and look upon the carcases of the men that have transgressed against me: for their worm shall not die, neither shall their fire be quenched; and they shall be an abhorring unto all flesh. (KJV)
The contents of this chapter are much the same as those of the previous chapter, looking at the release of the Jews out of their captivity, but looking through and beyond that, to the great work of man’s redemption by Jesus Christ, and the grace of His Gospel, which through Him believers partake of. There are precious Promises made to God’s people in their affliction, by His Presence with them, as He supports them and delivers them out of it (vs.1-7). A bold challenge to idols to compete with the omniscience and omnipotence of God (vs.8-13). Encouragement is given to the people of God to hope for their deliverance out of Babylon, from the thought of what God did for their fathers when He brought them out of Egypt (vs.14-21). A way taken to prepare the people for their deliverance, was to put them in mind of their sins, by which they had provoked God to send them into captivity and continue them there, that they might repent and seek to God for pardoning mercy (vs.22;28).
Theme: Past course of events . . . Creation, redemption, preservation of Israel; Looking forward . . . future judgment, deliverance, redemption of Israel; Promise of the Spirit; bold words against idolatry; prophecy concerning Cyrus.
Chapter 43 reveals that God is not through with the nation Israel. It is the same thing to not believe and to deny that God has a future purpose for the nation of Israel. Romans 11:1 I say then, Hath God cast away his people? God forbid. For I also am an Israelite, of the seed of Abraham, of the tribe of Benjamin. (KJV) . . . God is NOT through with Israel, and He makes it quite clear in this Chapter.
Promises Made to God's People in Their Affliction,
His Presence with Them, and Their Deliverance Out of It
Isaiah 43:1 But now thus saith the LORD that created thee, O Jacob, and he that formed thee, O Israel, Fear not: for I have redeemed thee, I have called thee by thy name; thou art mine. (KJV)
But now thus saith the Lord that created thee, O Jacob . . . this prophecy does not concern Cyrus, and the redemption of the Jews by him, as some think; nor Sennacherib and his army, and of their deliverance from him, as others say, but of the Christian church, and the state of it, when Jerusalem would be destroyed, as predicted in the preceding chapter; which goes by the name of Jacob and Israel, for the first churches consisted mainly of Jews . . . both converted Jews and Gentiles are the spiritual Israel of God (Gal.3:26-29).
And he that formed thee, O Israel . . . this creation and formation are not so much to be understood of their being the creatures of God, and the work of His Hands, in a natural sense; but instead of their new creation and regeneration (2 Cor.5:17; Gal.6:15); of their being the spiritual workmanship of God, created in Christ, and formed for His glory.
Fear not: for I have redeemed thee . . . although Jerusalem would be destroyed, and Judea wasted, and although they were subject to the persecutions of wicked men in all places; yet since they are redeemed by Christ from sin, Satan and the law, Hell and death, nothing is to be feared from any of them . . . for redemption by Christ is a remedy against the fear of any enemy.
I have called thee by thy name . . . with an effective calling, which is of specific persons, those that are redeemed by Christ; for whom He has redeemed by His precious Blood (1 Pet.1:18-19), they are called by the grace of God (Gal.1:15; 1 Pet.5:10) to special blessings of grace, with a high, holy and heavenly calling; and have no reason to fear anything, since they are the chosen of God (Lk.23:35; Acts 10:41; 22:14; 1 Cor.1:27-28; 1 Pet.2:4), have a right to all spiritual blessings; all things work together for their good (Rom.8:28); they shall endure to the end (Mat.10:22), and at last be brought to glory, to which they are called: called... by... name, not merely called, but chosen as His own peculiar people (Isa.45:3-4; Ex.33:12; Jn.10:3).
Thou art mine . . . those who are redeemed by Christ, and called by His grace, they are His Father's gift to Him (Jn.10:29), and His own purchase (Rom.5:6-11; 1 Cor.15:3-4). They voluntarily gave themselves to Him, under the influence of His Spirit (Rom.8:9) and grace; they are His by profession and possession; they are His portion, His people, His sheep and His spouse (Jn.3:29; Rev.21:19; 22:17); such as these, need not fear want of anything, nor any enemy.
*****This statement is very clear. God addresses the nation Israel in this entire section, and I do not think you could misunderstand Him unless you deliberately wanted to misunderstand.
He speaks of their origin: the Lord that created thee. God took a wretched specimen like Jacob, whose name means crooked, and made a nation out of him.
God took the dust of the ground, breathed into it the spirit of life (Gen.2:7), and it became a living human being. And that human being rebelled (Gen.2:16-17; 3:6-7). So now the LORD makes sons of God out of those who will trust Christ. That is our beginning, for I do NOT agree that we evolved from a monkey. We came from a rebellious sinner who had been taken from the ground. That first man passed on to us a fallen nature which will never be reformed or repaired. But the LORD graciously will give us a new nature IF we trust His Son (Jn.3:15-18).
Beginning with Jacob, God created a nation. Then He redeemed them from Egypt by blood and power, and they became Israel, a prince with God. They belong to God because of creation and because of redemption.
Isaiah 43:2 When thou passest through the waters, I will be with thee; and through the rivers, they shall not overflow thee: when thou walkest through the fire, thou shalt not be burned; neither shall the flame kindle upon thee. (KJV)
When thou passest through the waters; I will be with thee . . . some apply this to the Israelites' passage through the waters of the Red Sea, as a thing past; and others to Sennacherib's army, compared to the waters of a river strong and many (Isa.8:7).
And through the rivers, they shall not overflow thee . . . because of the variety and multitude of persecutions from men, and temptations of Satan, that enemy who comes in like a flood, and because of the speed and force of them, and their overflowing and overwhelming nature . . . there are paths through which the people of God pass; their way lies through them to eternal glory; and although they do continue, they do have an end, as all paths have; and when we have a good guide, and sufficient strength, we wade on through them safely . . . for they do not and shall not overflow them. With the LORD on our side, our faith will NOT utterly fail, nor will our troubles ever separate us from the love of God (Rom.8:34-39).
When thou walkest through the fire, thou shalt not be burnt: neither shall the flame kindle upon thee . . . afflictions and persecutions are compared to fire and flames, because they are very significant and troublesome to the flesh; and because of their trying nature; but yet the saints are not consumed by them. Waters and. fire, a well-known phrase for the extreme perils (Ps.23:3-4; 41:7-8; 66:10-12; 138:7; Job 13:15; 19:25-26; Isa.57:16). This was literally fulfilled at the Red Sea (Ex.14:21-22) and in the case of the three youths cast into the fiery furnace (Dan.3:25-27). Waters, floods: (Ps.18:4; 42:7; 69:15; 124:4-5; Isa.8:7-8; 28:2; 43:2; 59:19; Jer.46:7-8; Lam.3:54; Dan.9:26; Rev.12:15-16; 17:1, 15).
*****This is a Promise which specifically applies to Israel and the manner in which God delivered them in the past, as when they crossed the Red Sea and the Jordan River. It also gives all of God's children hope, in all times . . . When thou passest through the waters, I will be with thee. There are times when it seems we get into deep water where we can't touch bottom. It is at times like these, that we should have the assurance that the LORD is going through the experience with us! We are not going to drown, for His Promise to us is: they shall not overflow thee. He intervenes and delivers us. I will never leave thee, nor forsake thee (Heb.13:5). Believe Him. He cannot lie (Tit.1:2).
Isaiah 43:3 For I am the LORD thy God, the Holy One of Israel, thy Saviour: I gave Egypt for thy ransom, Ethiopia and Seba for thee. (KJV)
For I am the Lord thy God, the Holy One of Israel, thy Saviour . . . the LORD is the covenant God of His people, He is Holy, He is the Sanctifier of those who come to Him, and He is their Saviour in time of trouble; and therefore there is no need to doubt His Presence and support in the middle of all their afflictions. It is a wise thing instead, to call to mind past experiences of His goodness, which should encourage their faith in Him, as to His present help and assistance.
I gave Egypt for thy ransom . . . He sacrificed the Egyptians instead of the Israelites; He destroyed the firstborn of Egypt, and saved Israel, His firstborn; He drowned the Egyptians in the Red sea, when the Israelites passed safely through it (Ex.14:21-31; Josh.4:23).
Ethiopia and Seba for thee . . . this refers either to the rumor brought to Sennacherib of Tirhakah king of Ethiopia coming against him to war, which diverted him from the siege of Jerusalem for a time, and caused him to turn his forces upon the Ethiopians and Sabeans, whereby the Jews had a rest (2 Ki.19:9), or rather to the overthrow of the Ethiopians in the time of Asa (2 Chron.14:9), or to the king of Assyria, possibly Shalmaneser's being diverted from Palestine and Judea, and turning his forces upon Egypt and Ethiopia (Isa.20:1), and the Lord, by putting His people in mind of these instances, suggests that He will sacrifice all their enemies, rather than they shall be destroyed, and therefore they need not fear.
*****The LORD does not lower His high standard in salvation. How could God give Egypt and Ethiopia ransom for Israel? God basically says, I used them to discipline you. I allowed them to treat you as they did, and now I will judge them.
Proverbs 21:18 The wicked shall be a ransom for the righteous, and the transgressor for the upright. (KJV) . . . Have you ever wondered why God allows enemies to cross your path and cause you all kind of trouble? There is a very good reason! Maybe you have backed away from the LORD. Maybe He is trying to get your attention to bring you back into line and to advance you spiritually. God allows the enemy’s actions to deliver you from something you would have regretted. The LORD uses these people to straighten things out in our life, and then He straightened them out!
Isaiah 43:4 Since thou wast precious in my sight, thou hast been honourable, and I have loved thee: therefore will I give men for thee, and people for thy life. (KJV)
Since thou wast precious in my sight . . . the saints are precious in His sight; but they are not valuable in themselves, for they have no basic worth in them, nor are they in any way better than others; for they are of the fallen race of Adam. They are precious in the sight of the LORD, who has chosen them, and taken them into His family, and blessed them with all spiritual blessings; because of Christ. Saints are compared to things of value, to gold, to jewels, and precious stones, to a pearl of great price, to rich treasure (Mat.13); and are reckoned by Christ as His portion (Jn.10), and are very dear to Him.
Thou hast been honourable . . . saints are honorable, because they are precious in His sight, and that being for all eternity; for although they are dishonorable in themselves, through the fall of Adam, and their own transgressions, yet honorable in the regard of God and Christ; they appear to be so, by their rebirth, by regeneration, being born of God (Jn.1:12-13; 3:3-8); by their being justified by the righteousness of Christ (Ro. 5:1-2. 1 Cor.1:30).
And I have loved thee . . . saints became precious and honourable, because the LORD loves us (1 Jn.3:1; 4:8-10). The LORD’S love is a past act, an act in eternity; it is an act of satisfaction and pleasure; and it is a continued love, God rests in His love; and His love is an act of undeserved grace which never changes, never alters!
Therefore will I give men for thee, and people for thy life . . . as of old, the Egyptians, Ethiopians and Sabeans were given for the people of Israel, as in verse 3 . . . so too in New Testament times, the enemies of God's people should be given for them; that is, their enemies would be destroyed, and Israel would be spared and saved; but all Jews that rejected Christ, and persecuted His people, were given up to destruction. The Pagan Roman Empire was demolished, and so too shall the Revived Roman Empire in the last days be destroyed (Rev.18), whereas the church of the LORD will be preserved, and His interest revived, when all the kingdoms of the world become His (Rev.11:15).
*****I don’t think any of us can even begin to imagine how much the LORD loves Israel and how much He loves all the saints, Jew and Gentile (Gal.3:26-29). None of us really know how precious we are to the LORD.
Isaiah 43:5 Fear not: for I am with thee: I will bring thy seed from the east, and gather thee from the west; (KJV)
Fear not, for I am with thee . . . with the ministers that preach the everlasting Gospel (Rev.14:6), to make it successful to the conversion of many everywhere, as well as to bear them up under all trials, and to cause them to stand up against all opposition.
I will bring thy seed from the east, and gather thee from the west . . . which is not to be understood literally of the return of the Jews from the Babylon captivity; but spiritually of the gathering in of God's elect, whether Jews or Gentiles (Gal.3:26-29), which were scattered throughout the world. The Jews shall be gathered: (Isa.11:11-12; 27:12-13; 49:12; 60:1-11; 66:19-20; Deut.30:3; Ps.22:27-31; 106:47; 107:3; Jer.31:8-9; Eze.36:24-27; 37:8-9, 21-28; 39:25-29; Mic.2:12; Zec.8:7; Lk.13:29).
Isaiah 43:6 I will say to the north, Give up; and to the south, Keep not back: bring my sons from far, and my daughters from the ends of the earth; (KJV)
I will say to the north, give up: and to the south, keep not back . . . that is, do not retain those that belong to the LORD. The inhabitants of the northern and southern climates are called upon to deliver up the LORD'S people to Him, for whose sake the Gospel was sent into these parts, to find them, and bring them home; by the north may be meant the Goths, Muscovites, Swedes, and those northern isles, and by the south the Egyptians, Africans, and Ethiopians. Some think the Passage is so expressed, which refers to the universal gathering of the Jews in the latter day to the holy land; because Media, Persia and China, lie to the east of it; Tartary and Scythia to the north; the kingdom of the Abyssines to the south; and Europe to the west.
Bring my sons from far, and my daughters from the ends of the earth . . . those whom the LORD had predestinated to the adoption of children (Eph.1:5), and had taken into His family, and whom He regenerated by His Spirit and grace. Sons and daughters . . . the feminine joined to the masculine expresses the complete totality of the thing.
*****In verses 5-6, God states clearly that He will regather the nation Israel. Jer. 31:10 Hear the word of the LORD, O ye nations, and declare it in the isles afar off, and say, He that scattered Israel will gather him, and keep him, as a shepherd doth his flock. (KJV) . . . He that scattered Israel will in the last days gather him, and keep him, as a shepherd keeps his flock. Regardless of what the world situation might be, God says He intends to regather Israel. It is a Promise from Him, and He cannot lie! (Tit.1:2).
Isaiah 43:7 Even every one that is called by my name: for I have created him for my glory, I have formed him; yea, I have made him. (KJV)
Even everyone that is called by my name . . . everyone who is a son or daughter of the LORD, a Christian, whoever belongs to the LORD, whom He calls by His Name; and who, being called by His Spirit and His grace, who sincerely call upon His Name, who make a profession of His Name, who serve and worship Him.
For I have created him for my glory, I have formed him, yea, I have made him . . . all which express the power and grace of God, in the regeneration and conversion of His people; which is a creation, a formation, a making them for Himself, for the glory of His grace, and to show forth His praise. Therefore He will gather them in, and bring them into one body together.
A Challenge to Idols to Compete
With the Omniscience and Omnipotence of God
Isaiah 43:8 Bring forth the blind people that have eyes, and the deaf that have ears. (KJV)
Bring forth the blind people that have eyes, and the deaf that have ears . . . the Targum applies this to the bringing of the people of Israel out of Egypt; while others understand it of their deliverance from the Babylon captivity; and some say it is the exclusion of them from the kingdom of heaven, and casting them into outward darkness (Mat.8:12). Could it possibly mean the conviction of them and of the Gentiles, and of the enlightening of them, who were before blind; and causing them to hear, who were before utterly deaf to spiritual things? This, to me seems to agree with what is said before. Possibly it is best to consider the words as a summons to those in the Revived Roman Empire in the last days, to come forth and appear, who were as blind and deaf as the idols they worshipped, and plead their cause . . . but to me, it seems to agree with what follows. Blind people, the Gentiles, who also like Israel are blind spiritually (Isa.42:19).
Isaiah 43:9 Let all the nations be gathered together, and let the people be assembled: who among them can declare this, and shew us former things? let them bring forth their witnesses, that they may be justified: or let them hear, and say, It is truth. (KJV)
Let all the nations be gathered together, and let the people be assembled . . . in one place, if it could be, in an open court of justice that their whole strength might be united together, and the most forceful arguments any of them are able to produce might be brought out; and that all of them might have an opportunity of hearing the cause fairly argued, and the point decided, and judge for themselves on which side truth lies.
Who among them can declare this, and show us former things?. . . what god or prophet of theirs can declare any future event, such as the redemption of the Jews by Cyrus, foretold from the mouth of the LORD by Isaiah, long before the accomplishment of it, or anything whatever before it comes to pass? None but the LORD, who is omniscient, can foretell future events with certainty. Who can declare this, who among the idolatrous fortunetellers has predicted this; that Cyrus would be the deliverer of Israel? Former predictions (Isa.42:9), or things that shall first come to pass (Isa.41:21-22).
Let them bring forth their witnesses, that they may be justified . . . let them produce witnesses that their gods spoke of things before they came to pass, and that they came to pass just as they foretold they would; that their cause may appear a just one, and that they, their worshippers, are right in serving them. Let them bring forth their witnesses, as I do mine (vs.10). Justified, declared honest in their pretended prophecies (Isa.41:26).
Let them hear, and say, it is truth . . . let them listen to the evidence against them, and acknowledge that what I say is true, and that I am the TRUE God, and there is NO other.
Isaiah 43:10 Ye are my witnesses, saith the LORD, and my servant whom I have chosen: that ye may know and believe me, and understand that I am he: before me there was no God formed, neither shall there be after me. (KJV)
Ye are my witnesses, saith the Lord . . . the people of Israel, could testify that the LORD had foretold their affliction in Egypt (Gen.15:13), their coming from there (Ex.3:20-22), and settling in the land of Canaan (Josh.1:3-5, 11), hundreds of years before they came to pass, and which were exactly fulfilled; and so the apostles of Christ, and ministers of the Word, and all Christian people in all nations, are witnesses of the prophecies concerning Christ, His Birth, His miracles, His obedience, His sufferings, His death, His resurrection, His ascension to Heaven, and His ascension to the right hand of God, (Mk.16:19; Lk.22:69; Acts 2:33; 5:31; 7:55-56; Rom.8:34; Col.3:1; Heb.10:12; 1 Pet.3:22). ALL which are exactly accomplished!
And my servant whom I have chosen . . . could mean the prophet Isaiah, or the prophets in general . . . but also the Messiah, His Servant in whom He was well pleased; and who is called the faithful witness (Rev.1:5), and to whom the character of a servant, and mine elect well agree (Isa.42:1).
That ye may know and believe me, and understand that I am he . . . by which testimonies and evident proofs of deity, from the prediction of future events, and the perfect accomplishment of them, you may have an able knowledge, a firm persuasion, and a clear perception of this important Truth, that the God of Israel, and of all TRUE Christians, is the One and only LORD God.
Before me there was no God formed, neither shall there be after me . . . implying that idols were formed by the hands of men, none of these were formed by or before the LORD, so they could make no pretenses to deity, nor to be equal with Him; nor would any be formed afterwards, that could be put in competition with Him. To sum it all up, there is NO other god beside Him anywhere! The LORD God has NO competitor or equal anywhere! He alone is God. He alone holds this unique position.
Isaiah 43:11 I, even I, am the LORD; and beside me there is no saviour. (KJV)
I, even I, am the LORD . . . JEHOVAH (Ex.6:3; Ps.83:18; Isa.12:2; 26:4), is another Name for the Almighty Creator LORD, the self-existing, eternal, and immutable Being. I, even I, is doubled here to confirm it, and to exclude all others!
And besides me there is no Saviour . . . either in a temporal or spiritual sense; the gods of the Heathens could NOT save them out of their present troubles, and much less save them with an everlasting salvation; NONE but the Almighty LORD God can do this, and this is a proof that Christ is God, since NONE but God can be a Saviour.
*****It is interesting that of all the religions of the world, only Christianity guarantees salvation. The other religions have quite an array of doctrines, but NONE of them . . . NOT even ONE, can guarantee eternal salvation. Dear one . . . the LORD God tells us: Beside me there is no Saviour.
Isaiah 43:12 I have declared, and have saved, and I have shewed, when there was no strange god among you: therefore ye are my witnesses, saith the LORD, that I am God. (KJV)
I have declared, and I have saved, and I have showed . . . I have showed to Abraham your father what would come to pass; I redeemed you out of Egypt, and I caused you to hear the doctrine of the law at Sinai. God had declared by His prophets, long before the Messiah came, that He would send Him, beginning in Genesis (Gen.3:15); that He would come and save His people (Gen.12:1-3; 22:18), by His obedience, His sufferings and His death ( Isa.50:6; 52:14; 53:2-12; Ps.22:6-7, 15, 17; 102:3-5; Dan.9:26), accordingly He did come (Lk.2:1-7), and was the Author of salvation (Heb.5:9). The LORD had wrought out salvation by Him, as He had declared He would; and this He had shown, published, and made known by the everlasting Gospel, preached among all nations.
When there was no strange god among you . . . NO idol ever assisted in this salvation . . . for it was the Arm of Christ alone that worked it out! This marvelous work of salvation is not strange among you; it is well known to you, being published in the Gospel of Jesus Christ.
Isaiah 43:13 Yea, before the day was I am he; and there is none that can deliver out of my hand: I will work, and who shall let it? (KJV)
Yea, before the day was I am he . . . before there was a day, long before the first day of the Creation; long before time was . . . from all eternity, I am He that decided upon and secured this one and only method of saving mankind. I am He that have spoken of it to all the prophets, from the beginning of the world, and now it is accomplished.
And there is none can deliver out of my hand. . . either those whom the LORD determines to punish, or those whom He decides to save . . . NO one can snatch them out of His Hands, and NO one can change His plans as to the destiny of either.
I will work, and who shall let it? . . . when the LORD brought about the work of Creation, there was absolutely NO opposition to it, nor any hindrance or interference of Him. In providence, all things are done by Him, just as He pleases . . . so too it is with all His purposes, reasons and decrees . . . for they which are His works, are within Him, and are accomplished exactly according to his pleasure (Eph.1:5, 9), and NO one can resist His will. The work of redemption is perfectly finished, according to the draft of it in His eternal mind. When the LORD works upon the heart of a sinner at conversion, whatever obstructions and difficulties are in the way, they are removed, and the work is begun, and carried on, and performed, until the day of Christ (Phil.1:6). The work of the LORD in His churches, and the setting up of His Kingdom in the world, in a more visible and glorious manner, shall be done in the last days, and NONE will be able to hinder it.
Who can turn it back?. . . neither His work, nor His Hand in working. His purposes cannot be annulled; His power cannot be controlled; His work cannot be made void, or of no effect; He always succeeds, for He has absolutely NO superior anywhere that can obstruct Him, and that includes the devil and all his many associates (demons and humans, Mat.25:41).
Encouragement Given to the People of God
To Hope for Their Deliverance Out of Babylon
Isaiah 43:14 Thus saith the LORD, your redeemer, the Holy One of Israel; For your sake I have sent to Babylon, and have brought down all their nobles, and the Chaldeans, whose cry is in the ships. (KJV)
Thus saith the Lord, your Redeemer. . . to the redeemed Israel out of Egypt, and would redeem the Jews from Babylon in a short time,
The Holy One of Israel . . . (vs.3), holy in Himself, the Holiness to Israel, and ever faithful to all His Promises.
For your sake I have sent to Babylon . . . Cyrus and his army, to take it, in order to deliver the Jews from their captivity in it.
And have brought down all their nobles . . . from their seats of honor and glory, stripped them of all their grandeur and dignity, and reduced them to a low and mean estate. This is to be understood of the princes and nobles of Babylon, who fell with the city, as their king did.
And the Chaldeans, whose cry is in their ships . . . who used to glory in their shipping they had in the Euphrates River, as it might be, when they found Cyrus and his army had gotten into the city, then their cry was, “to the ships, to the ships,” that lay in the river close by, in order to make their escape; or their cry was, when they were ‘in’ the ships, a cry of lamentation and distress, because they could not get them off, Cyrus having drained the river; or it refers to their cry, when put aboard the ships that belonged to the Medes and Persians, in order to the transporting them into other countries. There shall be such a great cry when mystical Babylon (Rome) is destroyed in the last days (Rev.18:17-19).
Isaiah 43:15 I am the LORD, your Holy One, the creator of Israel, your King. (KJV)
I am the Lord, your Holy One . . . since the LORD is the One and only Holy One, therefore you need not doubt the performance of those Promises.
The Creator of Israel, your King . . . and since He is the Creator of Israel, He is therefore both well able and willing to protect them.
*****Surely it is obvious that the nation Israel is the subject. The LORD takes responsibility for bringing them into existence, and for their care. Every anti-Semite should take note of this. The Holy One is their King. This is yet another declaration of the deity of Christ, for He is their King. When the Lord Jesus came to Earth and made His claim to Kingship, Israel knew that He was claiming to be Immanuel, God with us (Isa.7:14; Mat.1:23). Any instructed Israelite knew that.
Isaiah 43:16 Thus saith the LORD, which maketh a way in the sea, and a path in the mighty waters; (KJV)
Thus saith the LORD, which maketh a way in the sea . . . the LORD did make a way (road) in the Red Sea, when He led Israel through it as on dry land (Ex.14:21-31). This, with what follows, should encourage the faith of the LORD'S people in the performance of what He had promised, to bring them out of Babylon; for He that had done this, and the rest that are mentioned, could very easily remove any and all difficulties that lay in the way of their deliverance.
And a path in the mighty waters . . . either of the Red Sea, and/or it may be of Jordan River; through which the Israelites passed into the land of Canaan, on dry ground (Josh.3:5-17).
Isaiah 43:17 Which bringeth forth the chariot and horse, the army and the power; they shall lie down together, they shall not rise: they are extinct, they are quenched as tow. (KJV)
Which bringeth forth the chariot and the horse, the army and the power . . . . the LORD brought forth the chariots and horses, and the mighty army of Pharaoh out of Egypt, to pursue the Israelites into the Red Sea, where they were drowned (Ex.14:26-31). The present tense is put for the future, as in the preceding verse; the future is put for the past tense in the next clause.
They shall lie down together, they shall not rise . . . they lay down in the Red Sea, where they sunk to the bottom and perished and never rose again, nor never will, until the general resurrection (Dan.12:1-2; Rev.20:12).
They are extinct, they are quenched as tow . . . or flax, or as the wick of a candle, when put into water. Is quenched at once; like the Egyptian became extinct in the Red Sea. Some see this as a reference to the product of flax, for which Egypt was famous. One interprets the whole of the army of Sennacherib, which was brought out of their own land to Jerusalem, and was destroyed in one night by an angel (2 Ki.19:35; Isa.37:36).
Isaiah 43:18 Remember ye not the former things, neither consider the things of old. (KJV)
Remember ye not the former things . . . just now referred to, the bringing of Israel out of Egypt, and through the Red sea, and the drowning of Pharaoh and his army in it; for although these things were worthy to be remembered with thankfulness and praise, and to the glory of God, and for the encouragement of faith, yet they do not compare to what would be in the hereafter be done; meaning, not the redemption from Babylon, unless as a type of spiritual and eternal redemption by Christ; for otherwise there were greater and more wonderful things done, when Israel was brought out of Egypt, than when they were brought out of Babylon . . . but the great salvation by the Messiah, greatly exceeds both the deliverances out of Egypt and Babylon is meant.
Neither consider the things of old . . . so wonderful shall be God's future stepping in on Israel’s behalf, that all past miracles shall be forgotten when compared! Clearly the future restoration of Israel is the event ultimately meant. Thus the former things are such events as the destruction of Sennacherib and the return from Babylon. Things of old are events still more ancient, the deliverance from Egypt and at the Red Sea, and entry into the land of Canaan, will not compare with what the LORD has in store for Israel in the last days.
Isaiah 43:19 Behold, I will do a new thing; now it shall spring forth; shall ye not know it? I will even make a way in the wilderness, and rivers in the desert. (KJV)
Behold, I will do a new thing . . . . a wonderful and unheard of thing, and so it is introduced with behold, as a note of admiration; the same with the new thing created in the earth (Jer.31:22), the incarnation of the Son of God; who took flesh of a virgin, appeared in the likeness of sinful flesh (Jn.1:14), and was made sin and a curse for His people (2 Cor.5:21; Isa.53:4-6, 9-12; Gal.3:13; Eph.5:2; 1 Pet.3:18; 1 Jn.2:1-2), in order to obtain eternal redemption for them; which blessing, although not newly thought of, for it was from eternity; nor newly made known, or as to the virtue and effectiveness of it, which had been from the beginning of the world, yet new as to the request of it by the Blood and Sacrifice of Christ Jesus (Eph.2:13; Heb.9:14; 1 Pet.1:18-19;1 Jn.1:7); and may be also called new, because it is so outstanding and wonderful, it being of a spiritual nature, complete and eternal, and having so many valuable blessings within it, as justification (Rom.3:24; 5:1), forgiveness of sin (Acts 5:31; 13:38;26:18; Eph.1:7; Col.1:14) and eternal life (Mat.25:46; Jn.3:15, 36; 10:28; 17:2-3; 1 Jn.5:11).
Now it shall spring forth . . . shall bud forth as a branch, in a very short time, suddenly, and at once; one of the Messiah's Names is that of the Branch (Zec.3:8). See Special Comments at the end of Isaiah Chapter 41, for Names of our awesome Triune God.
Shall ye not know it? . . . meaning the Redeemer, and the redemption by Him. It was and IS known to them that looked for it, and to whom the Gospel is sent, which the Spirit of Christ (Rom.8:9) reveals and applies it; these know the importance of it, know it to be of the LORD, and know the Author of it (Heb.5:9; 12:2) and know in Whom they have believed (2 Tim.1:12). This may also have respect to the conversion of the Gentiles, and to the grace of God dispensed through Christ to them, for when old things passed away, and all things became new (2 Cor. 5:17); a new covenant of grace was exhibited, a new church state set up, new ordinances appointed, and a new people called to partake of all this. Wonderful and excellent things were done for them, as follows:
I will even make a way in the wilderness . . . just as there was a way made for the Israelites through the wilderness, which lay between Egypt and Canaan; and through another, which lay between Babylon and Judea; so the LORD would also make a way in the Gentile world, compared to a wilderness for its barrenness and unfruitfulness, so the Gospel could enter into it, where the way should run, and be glorified; where Christ, the Way of salvation, should be made known; and where there would be a way for Christians to walk together, in the fellowship of the Gospel.
And rivers in the desert . . . the doctrines of the Gospel, and the ordinances of it, which would be preached in the Gentile world, before like a desert; and which would be brought into the hearts of men by means of the grace of the Holy Spirit, and the abundant supply of grace from Christ Jesus (Rom.5:17; 16:20, 24; 2 Cor.12:9; 1 Tim.1:14), and to discover the love of God, with all its marvelous blessings, compared to rivers for their abundance, and for the comforting, reviving and fruit producing nature of them.
*****Just as Israel in the wilderness, between the Red Sea and Canaan, was guided through the water by the LORD, the new way shall be attended with displays of God's power and love, hiding the old. Isaiah 41:17-19 When the poor and needy seek water, and there is none, and their tongue faileth for thirst, I the LORD will hear them, I the God of Israel will not forsake them. 18 I will open rivers in high places, and fountains in the midst of the valleys: I will make the wilderness a pool of water, and the dry land springs of water. 19 I will plant in the wilderness the cedar, the shittah tree, and the myrtle, and the oil tree; I will set in the desert the fir tree, and the pine, and the box tree together: (KJV)
A way often stands for the true religion (Acts 9:2; 18:26). Rivers express the influence of the Holy Spirit (Jn.7:37-39), which give us comfort and hope. I think this refers to the conversion of the Gentiles but also looks to Israel's literal restoration in the last days, as it seems to appear from the following. Isaiah 11:15-16 And the LORD shall utterly destroy the tongue of the Egyptian sea; and with his mighty wind shall he shake his hand over the river, and shall smite it in the seven streams, and make men go over dryshod. 16 And there shall be an highway for the remnant of his people, which shall be left, from Assyria; like as it was to Israel in the day that he came up out of the land of Egypt. (KJV)
Isaiah 43:20 The beast of the field shall honour me, the dragons and the owls: because I give waters in the wilderness, and rivers in the desert, to give drink to my people, my chosen. (KJV)
The beast of the field shall honour me, the dragons, and the owls . . . when Israel came through the deserts from Babylon, the LORD gave them water to drink in the dry and thirsty places (Num.20:9-13; Deut.8:15; Neh.9:15; Ps.78:15-16; 78:20; 105:41; 114:8; Isa.48:21; 1 Cor.10:4), to which there may be a spiritual reference to the Gentiles, compared to the dragons and owls for the savageness, fierceness and foolishness, and who were considered by the Jews as the beasts of the field; who would honor and glorify God for the Gospel brought to them, and for His grace and mercy bestowed on them. Beast is also a symbol of idolaters, defiled with blood and pollutions (Deut.18:10; 2 Ki.16:2-3; 17:16-17; 31:6; 23:10; 2 Chron.33:6). It is my opinion that the LORD sees abortion in today’s world, as human sacrifice. http://hisservants.org/abortion_h_s.htm
Because I give waters in the wilderness, and rivers in the desert . . . as before (vs.19).
To give drink to my people, my chosen . . . to refresh and comfort the hearts of His people, whom He had chosen out from among the Gentiles through Abraham (Gen.12:1-4), and now would call them by His grace, and set them to thirst for Christ, and seek salvation by Him.
*****The LORD promises not only to deliver them out of Babylon, but to conduct them safely and comfortably to their own land (vs.19-20). The LORD will make a way in the wilderness and rivers in the desert; for it seems, the way from Babylon to Canaan, as well as from Egypt, lay through a desert land, which, while the returning captives passed through, God provided completely for them, they NEVER lacked anything (Deut.2:7; 8:4; 29:5-6; Neh. 9:21). They were well fed and cared for. The same power that made a way in the sea (vs.16) can make a way in the wilderness, going through even the greatest difficulties. And He that made dry land in the waters (Ex.14:29; Josh.3:17), can certainly produce waters in the driest land, in such abundance as not only to give drink to His people, His chosen ones, but also to the beasts of the field, also the dragons and the ostriches, who are therefore said to honor God for it. It is a shame that man who is capable of praising his benefactor, does not do so as he should, including me.
Isaiah 43:21 This people have I formed for myself; they shall shew forth my praise. (KJV)
This people have I formed for myself . . . the Gentiles are compared to a desert and wilderness, wild and uncultivated, different from Jacob and Israel in the next verse, and the same with the chosen people before mentioned; who being chosen of God, and redeemed by Christ, are formed anew by the Spirit of Christ, made new creatures (2 Cor.5:17; Gal.6:15), regenerated and transformed by the renewing of their minds (Rom.12:2), and conformed to the image of Christ (Rom.8:29; Col.3:10), and having Him formed in their souls, and principles of grace and holiness wrought in them; in result of which they reformed in their lives and conversation, and were also formed into a Gospel church state, and all this done by the LORD for Himself, His service and His glory.
They shall show forth my praise . . . with their lips (Heb.13:15), by assigning their newness to the power and grace of God, and even the whole of eternal salvation to it, expressing their thankfulness for it all, and also by their actions, by subjecting to the ordinances of the Gospel, and by their lives agreeing to it.
To Prepare the People for Their Deliverance,
Admonition to Repent of Their Sins
Isaiah 43:22 But thou hast not called upon me, O Jacob; but thou hast been weary of me, O Israel. (KJV)
But thou hast not called upon me, O Jacob . . . the Jews, although they were the descendants of Jacob, a praying man, yet they did not follow in his steps, but were more like the Heathens that did not call on the Name of the LORD. They had cast off prayer: Thou hast not called upon me, O Jacob! (Hos 12:4). His seed bore his name, but did not tread in his steps, and so are rightly rebuked about it. God is hurt when His children pervert from the virtue and devotion of their pious ancestors. To boast of the name of Jacob, and yet live without prayer, is to mock God and deceive ourselves. If Jacob does not call upon God, who will?
But thou hast been weary of me, O Israel . . . of the Word, worship, and ordinances of God. But Israel is not to think that these divine favors are due to their own righteousness towards God. So too for the believer (Tit.3:5). Weary of me (Mal.1:13), although I have not wearied thee (vs.23), yet thou hast been weary of Me.
Isaiah 43:23 Thou hast not brought me the small cattle of thy burnt offerings; neither hast thou honoured me with thy sacrifices. I have not caused thee to serve with an offering, nor wearied thee with incense. (KJV)
Thou hast not brought me the small cattle of thy burnt offerings . . . the kids and the lambs, which, according to the law, should have been brought for burnt offerings daily, morning and evening; and much less did they bring the larger cattle of burnt offerings, as oxen and bullocks. Some think this refers to the times of Ahaz, when the service of the LORD ceased in the Temple, and idolatry was practiced at Jerusalem, but it seems to refer to later times, closer to the times of Christ (Mal.1:13).
Neither hast thou honoured me with thy sacrifices . . . what sacrifices they did offer were not offered to God, but to their idols; or #1. the sacrifices were not according to the Law of God; or #2. they were not offered up in the faith of the Messiah, nor with a true spirit of devotion, and with a sincere view to the glory of God, #3. or in true repentance for sins; but rather as an atonement (payment) for them, and that they might continue on in them (Isa.1:11).
I have not caused thee to serve with an offering . . . a meat or bread offering, which was a freewill offering, it was at their option whether they would bring it or not.
Nor wearied thee with incense . . . or frankincense, which was put upon the meat or bread offering (Lev.2:1). Some understand this of all offerings in general, that they were not as many that were commanded of them, nor expensive that they were not able to bear the charge of them, considering the fruitfulness of the land of Canaan, and especially the numerous and costly sacrifices of Heathen idolaters. Others think it refers to the time of Israel's coming out of Egypt, and the covenant of God with them, when no mention was made of sacrifices, nor were they ordered them (Jer.7:21-24).
Isaiah 43:24 Thou hast bought me no sweet cane with money, neither hast thou filled me with the fat of thy sacrifices: but thou hast made me to serve with thy sins, thou hast wearied me with thine iniquities. (KJV)
Thou hast bought me no sweet cane with money . . . or calamus (Ex.30:23; Song 4:14; Eze.27:19), which was used in the anointing oil, and for the perfume or incense (Ex.30:7), this they thought too expensive, and so left it out of the composition, or neglected the whole. The meaning of this clause seems to be, you have been too cheap in your service to Me, when you have spared no cost in the service of your idols, as is elsewhere noted.
Neither hast thou filled me with the fat of thy sacrifices . . . they had offered no more sacrifices than were absolutely necessary; they had not multiplied their thank-offerings and free-will offerings, although the LORD had given them ample time to do so.
But thou hast made me to serve with thy sins . . . they had caused the LORD to bear the load and burden of their sins, which are very grievous and oppressive to Him (Am.2:13), and greatly try His patience. They made it necessary for Him to take upon Himself the form of a Servant, that He might bear and carry away their sins. This clause and the one that follows are opposed to and aggravated by what He said (vs.23). He did not make them to serve or weary Him with offerings, although that work was honorable and beneficial to them, but they served in the vilest manner, with such things that were not only offensive to the LORD, but also hateful to Him.
Thou hast wearied me with thine iniquities . . . their sins were so many and so serious, that the LORD could not bear with them any longer. His patience was worn out; they were a discomfort to Him, and it was a burden upon Him. And so, He would ease Himself, as He sometimes does, by avenging Himself (Isa.1:24), but here, He will pardon them, as in the following verse. Some think that these are the Words of Christ, the surety of His people, who took upon Him the form of a servant for their sake, and had all their sins laid upon Him, and which He willingly bore, and made satisfaction for. This must be understood of the remnant according to the election of grace (Rom.11:5), among these people so sadly corrupted, and for whose sins of omission and commission Christ made atonement; and upon the base of His satisfaction, remission of sins proceeds, as in the next verse.
Isaiah 43:25 I, even I, am he that blotteth out thy transgressions for mine own sake, and will not remember thy sins. (KJV)
I, even I am he, that blotteth out thy transgressions for mine own sake . . . I, even I, whom you have so hated, scorned, wearied and provoked to destroy thee. I, even I . . . the God against whom their sin is committed, and who alone can and will pardon (Isa.44:22). That blotteth out thy transgressions out of my book, in which they were all written (Jer.17:1; Rev.20:12). Sins are often compared to debts (Mat.6:12, 14; 18:21-27, 34; Lk.7:40-48), which are written in the Creditor's book; and crossed or blotted out when they are paid. For mine own sake; being moved not by their merits, but by the LORD’S own goodness and mercy.
And will not remember thy sins . . . The LORD God forgives and forgets; God will not remember the sins of His people against them, once He forgives them, He will never punish them for those sins, He will remember the sins no more (Jer.31:34; Heb.8:12; 10:17).
*****Sins in the next clause is original and actual sins; which are transgressions of the Law of God, for which it pronounces guilty, curses and condemns; and which are contrary to the nature of God. They attack His deity, are abominable to Him (Jer.44:3-4); and although they are many and endless . . . they ALL are pardoned for Christ's sake; which is here expressed by a blotting them out, in reference to the blotting of a debt in a debt book. Sins are debts, and are many, and which cannot be paid by the sinner. Christ has made FULL payment; as the security of His people, and when His work on the cross is believed and accepted by anyone, the debt in the book is crossed out, these debts are paid for, for His sake.
And will not remember thy sins, God forgives and forgets; God will not remember the sins of His people against them; having forgiven them, He will never punish them for them, which is meant by remembering them (Jer.14:10).
Isaiah 43:26 Put me in remembrance: let us plead together: declare thou, that thou mayest be justified. (KJV)
Put me in remembrance . . . there are several interpretations of this phrase. #1. Of this gracious Promise of free remission of sins, and of all others of the same kind; not that God ever forgets any of His Promises, but it may seem to us that He may sometimes seem to do so. #2. I remember nothing by which you have deserved My favor and the pardon of your sins; if you know any such thing, bring it to My mind, that I may allow you liberty to plead with Me, and if you have right on your side, I will justify you. #3. It is a sarcastic speech, where the LORD insults those who were puffed up with the opinion of their own innocence and merit; which was the case of many Jews, as Isaiah and other prophets have often observed.
Let us plead together . . . or come together in judgment, as God and the sinner may upon the base of remission of sin, through the Blood, Sacrifice and Satisfaction of Christ, and as their own works would not be sufficient, it was a vain thing for them to think they have an alternative to the works and merits of their forefathers.
*****God urged Israel to remember Him as a Partner in their longstanding relationship, to reason together with Him, and to produce all the arguments possible in their own defense to justify their own backslidings and continued rebellion. On the LORD’S part, He accused them of sin (vs.24, 27), for which they should be punished (vs.28). On their part God urged them to bring up any reason, in self-defense, either to justify themselves in their actions or prove they were unjustly accused.
Isaiah 43:27 Thy first father hath sinned, and thy teachers have transgressed against me. (KJV)
Thy first father hath sinned . . . either Adam, in whom all have sinned, and from whom all people derive a sinful and corrupt nature; or Abraham, the father of the Jewish nation, of whom they boasted, and in whom they trusted, as being of his seed, and through whose merits and worthiness they expected great things. But Abraham was just a sinful man, even though he was a good man, and a great believer; of whose weakness and frailty many instances are on record. Some have thought Terah the father of Abraham is meant, who was an idolater; others think some particular king is meant, the father of his people. Some say Jeroboam is intended, the first king of the ten tribes who made Israel to sin; but others say it is Saul, who was the first king over all Israel; others interpret it of Ahaz; and others of Manasseh; some Uriah the priest in the times of Ahaz.
And thy teachers have transgressed against me . . . or interpreters of the Law to the people, the Priests and Levites, Scribes and Pharisees; such who should have taught the people, and instructed them in the knowledge of divine things, and interceded with God for them. But, they were transgressors of the Law themselves, as well as despisers of the Gospel. They rejected the counsel of God against themselves, did not believe the Messiah, and prevented the people from receiving Him. They were orators, and they used all the eloquent speech making they were masters of, against Christ, to persuade the people into a hostile opinion of Him, and last, but not least, to insist upon His crucifixion (Lk.23:21; Jn.19:6).
Isaiah 43:28 Therefore I have profaned the princes of the sanctuary, and have given Jacob to the curse, and Israel to reproaches. (KJV)
Therefore I have profaned the princes of the sanctuary . . the past tense for the future, common in prophetic writings, He will do it. These are not Moses and Aaron, or the kings, but the priests of the Temple, who had the care and rule of things there, so they are called princes; these princes, when this prophecy was fulfilled, were treated as common people, stripped of their office, their priesthood and the honor of it were taken from them. Sacrifices were abolished, and the law concerning them; this was more definitely true when Jerusalem was destroyed, the Temple burnt, and the daily Sacrifice made to cease, by the Romans.
And have given Jacob to the curse, and Israel to reproaches . . . to be cursed and reproached, as the Jews are in all places to this day (Zec.12:2-3), wherever they be, and that very righteously, and in just retaliation for their denial and rejection of Christ, and the way they treated His followers. They both hung Him upon the accursed tree (Gal.3:13), and cursed His Blood on them and their children (Mat.27:25), which cursed and condemned themselves, and cast those who professed His Name out of their synagogues (Jn.9:22; 12:42), as well as reproached and blasphemed Him, His person, His offices, His miracles and His doctrines (Mat.9:34; 12:24; Mk.3:30; Lk.11:15; 22:65), and therefore they have been justly given up to the curse of God and man, and to be a taunt, proverb and byword throughout the world (Jer.24:9; Zec.12:2-3).
*****Deut. 21:22-23 And if a man have committed a sin worthy of death, and he be to be put to death, and thou hang him on a tree: 23 His body shall not remain all night upon the tree, but thou shalt in any wise bury him that day; (for he that is hanged is accursed of God;) that thy land be not defiled, which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance. (KJV) . . . This seems to teach that there was a divine curse placed on a hanged person.
An interesting detail is that the cross of Christ was sometimes referred to in Jewish contexts as a tree.
Acts 5:30 The God of our fathers raised up Jesus, whom ye slew and hanged on a tree. (KJV)
Acts 10:39 And we are witnesses of all things which he did both in the land of the Jews, and in Jerusalem; whom they slew and hanged on a tree: (KJV)
Acts 13:29 And when they had fulfilled all that was written of him, they took him down from the tree, and laid him in a sepulchre. (KJV)
Hangings in the Bible: (Gen.40:18-22; Deut.21:22-23; Josh.8:29; 10:26; 2 Sam.4:12; 17:23; 18:9-17; 21:5-12; Ezra 6:11; Est.7:10; 9:14; Mat.27:5, 25-27; Acts 5:30; 10:39; Gal.3:13)
Matthew 27:25 Then answered all the people, and said, His blood be on us, and on our children. (KJV) . . . . . . http://www.godcannotlie.org/matthew_ch27.htm
This is the present condition of Israel (Zec.12:2-3). They have no peace today because they have departed from the true and living God. But . . . this is not their final state. In the last days, Israel shall be totally restored by the One whom they denied, rejected and cast away.
There is in this chapter a brilliant and bitterly shocking sarcasm against idolatry. This is the recurring subject of this particular section in Isaiah. The human heart is weak and has a way of always lusting for something it does not have, and easily turns away from God to some ridiculous idol. In today’s world, we do not go after graven images, like in Isaiah’s time, but dear one, anything or anyone to which a person gives himself to, instead of the TRUE God is an idol. It can be anything: alcohol, drugs, business, a career, a person, money, pleasure, sports, seeking fame and fortune, sex, self-adoration, etc. These are America’s idols. The high point of the Isaiah’s passion against idolatry will come in chapter 46. There we will be able to consider the subject of idolatry further and to really see what sets God apart from an idol.
This chapter brings us into the light of the Coming Kingdom of Christ and the Promise of the Holy Spirit. Chapter 44 continues the subject of chapter 43. In contrast, Chapter 66 closes with the darkness of the imminent Judgment Day.
Future Destruction of Babylon:
#1. No cry of men in ships went up when Babylon was taken by Cyrus, but weeping and wailing are predicted to happen in the last days (Rev.18:15-19).
#2. The LORD God will become the actual King of Israel at the Second Coming of Christ (Isa.43:15; 9:6-7; Dan.2:44-45; 7:13-14, 27; Zec.14:9; Lk.1:32-33; Rev.11:15).
#3. No army was destroyed by the LORD when Cyrus took Babylon, but such is predicted by fire and other means at the battle of Armageddon (Isa.43:17; Eze.38:17-21; 2 Thes.1:7-10; Rev.19).
#4. Isaiah 43:19-20 will be literally fulfilled in the Millennium when Christ comes (Isa.35:1-7; Eze.47; Zec.14:8).
#5. Israel has not yet shown forth God's praise as predicted in Isaiah 43:21, but it shall come to pass!
Failures of Israel:
#1. They had not called upon the LORD (Isa.43:22).
#2. They had been weary of the LORD.
#3. They had not brought the LORD burnt offerings (Isa.43:23).
#4. They had not honored the LORD with sacrifices.
#5. They had not bought the LORD sweet cane with money (Isa.43:24; Jer.6:20).
#6. They had not filled the LORD with the fat of their sacrifices.
#7. They had served the LORD with their sins.
#8. They had wearied the LORD with their iniquities.
Book of Isaiah . . Isaiah's Mini-Bible
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Isaiah's Introduction to the Suffering Servant
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